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“中华思想文化术语传播工程”首批81条术语(最后一波)

[日期:2015-01-15] 来源:教育部新闻办  作者:微言教育 [字体: ]

经典 | “自然英旨”啥意思你造吗?81个词语带你了解中华思想文化(最后一波)

教育部、国家语委近日发布“中华思想文化术语传播工程”首批术语。对“仁”、“义”、“道”等81条反映中华传统文化特征与思维方式的核心术语,中国官方正式对外发布了简明中文释义和英文翻译。今天,“微言教育”将这81条核心术语的内容全部展示给大家。下面这11条经典术语是最后一波,一起学习吧。

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修齐治平

xiūqízhìpíng

Self-cultivation, FamilyRegulation, State Governance, Bringing Peace to All Under Heaven

“修身”“齐家”“治国”“平天下”的缩写。以个人自身修养为基础逐步向外扩展,先治理好家庭,进而治理好邦国,更进而安抚和治理天下百姓。这是中国古代儒家伦理哲学和政治抱负的一个重要命题,体现了儒家由个人而家而国而天下层层递进的道德政治观。在逐步向外扩展的过程中,个人的德行和修养与不同层面的政治抱负息息相关。

Self-cultivation is the startingpoint of several steps moving outward. The next step is managing familyaffairs, followed by governing the state. The final step is moving to providepeace and sound governance to all under heaven. This process is a fundamentaltheme in Confucian moral philosophy and discourse on politics. It is agradually expanding process beginning with the individual and emanating outwardinto serving and benefiting an ever-larger whole. In such a process anindividual’s virtue and self-improvement are inseparable from his politicalaspirations.

例句 Example:

◎古之欲明明德于天下者,先治其国。欲治其国者,先齐其家。欲齐其家者,先修其身。(《礼记?大学》

(过去想要让美德在全天下发扬光大的人,先要治理好自己的邦国。想要治理好自己的邦国,先要治理好自己的家[周朝时为封地]。想要治理好自己的家,先要努力提高自身修养。)

The ancients, who wished topromote illustrious virtue under heaven, first had to rule their own stateswell. Wishing to govern their states well, they first had to manage theirfiefdoms well. Wishing to manage their fiefdoms well, they first had tocultivate themselves. (The Book of Rites)


有教无类

yǒujiào-wúlèi

Education for All WithoutDiscrimination

任何人都可以或必须接受教化;而人接受了教化,也就没有了因贵贱、贫富等而产生的差异。(一说:在教学时对学生一视同仁,不会按地位、贫富等将学生分成差等。)“教”指礼乐教化,即“人文”;“类”即种类,指贵贱、贫富、智愚、善恶、地域、种族等差别、区分。“有教无类”所昭示的是一种超越等级、地域、种族等差别的普及教育思想,更是一种主张平等待人、反对种种歧视的“人文”精神。

Education can and must beprovided for all. It eliminates the differences in social status and wealth.(Another explanation is that education should be provided to students withoutdiscrimination on the basis of social status or wealth.) Education consists ofteaching of social norms, music, and moral principles. A non-discriminatoryapproach to education means making no distinction between students based ontheir social status, wealth, mental capability, moral character, geographiclocation, or ethnicity. Transcending differences in social status, geography,and ethnicity, education for all without discrimination is a humanistic idealthat champions equal treatment of all people and rejects all forms ofdiscrimination.

例句 Example:

◎圣人之道无不通,故曰“有教无类”。彼创残之余,以穷归我。我援护之,收处内地,将教以礼法,职以耕农……何患之恤?(《新唐书?突厥传上》)

(圣人的道德教化无处不相通,所以说“只要接受了统一的教化,就不会再有因地域、种族产生的差异”。他们突厥人遭受战争创伤,因处困境而归顺于大唐。我们帮助、保护他们,把他们迁入内地定居,教他们礼仪法度,使他们以耕田务农为业……有什么可忧虑的呢?)

The moral values promoted byancient sages are universal. That is why “once the same education is provided,differences in geography and ethnicity would be smoothed out.” When the Tujue people who suffered from war trauma and were inpredicament submitted themselves to the Tang Dynasty, we should assist andprotect them, let them settle down among us, teach them social norms and law,and help them engage in farming… What should we beworried about? (The New Tang History)


紫之夺朱

zǐ zhī duó zhū

Purple Prevailing over Red

指社会生活与文学艺术等领域以邪乱正、真伪混淆的现象。朱指红色,古人认为是正色,而紫色则看作杂色,“夺”是胜过的意思。孔子对于在春秋时期出现邪正不分、淫靡的音乐取代雅正音乐的现象十分反感,提出要加以正本清源、拨乱反正。南朝刘勰借此批评有的作者在文章写作上背离了儒家经典,迎合人们的猎奇心理。后世以此倡导确立儒家的文学标准与规范。

This refers to evil prevailing overgood and falsehood being mistaken for truth in literature and art as well as insocial life. It is red, not purple, that was viewed as a truly proper color bythe ancient Chinese. Confucius, upset by the loss of judgment over good andevil, and by the fact that vulgar music was taking the place of refinedclassical music in the Spring and Autumn Period, called for dispellingconfusion and putting things in the right order. With this in mind, Liu Xie ofthe Southern Dynasties criticized some writers for abandoning Confucianteachings and catering to vulgar tastes. Scholars of later generations usedthis notion to reaffirm Confucian criteria and norms for literary creation.

例句 Examples:

◎子曰:“恶紫之夺朱也,恶郑声之乱雅乐也,恶利口之覆邦家者。”(《论语?阳货》)

(孔子说:“我厌恶用紫色取代红色,厌恶用郑国的音乐扰乱雅正的音乐,憎恶伶牙俐齿而使国家倾覆的人。”)

Confucius said, “I detestreplacing red with purple and interfering refined classical music with themusic of the State of Zheng. I loathe those who overthrow the state with theirglib tongues.” (The Analects)

◎辞为肌肤,志实骨髓。雅丽黼黻,淫巧朱紫。(刘勰《文心雕龙?体性》)

(文辞好比文章的皮肤,作者的思想感情才是文章的骨髓。高雅的文章犹如上古礼服所绣的花纹那样华丽庄重,过分追求辞藻与技巧则如同杂色搅乱了正色。)

Rhetoric is like the skin of anessay; the writer’s thoughts and feelings are its marrow. A piece of elegant writingis like the embroidery on a ceremonial gown in ancient times –magnificent and dignified. Excessive focus on rhetoric and technique, however,is no different from an abnormal color taking the place of a truly proper one.(Liu Xie: The Literary Mind and the Carving of Dragons)


自然英旨

zìrán yīngzhǐ

Charm of Spontaneity

在诗歌创作中不假雕饰地呈现自然万物之美和人的真情实感。“英旨”本义是美好的滋味,用为文学术语,指诗歌美妙的内容和意境。南朝钟嵘在《诗品序》中,要求诗人用自己的语言直接抒写思想感情,反对借用前人的诗句来吟咏自己的情志,批评五言诗创作中过度讲究辞藻和声律,认为符合“自然英旨”的创作才是最为珍贵的诗歌作品。后世文论中的“自然”“天真”等词传承了上述内涵。

This term means poetry creationshould present the unembellished beauty of nature and the genuine sentiments ofhuman beings. The original meaning of yingzhi (英旨) is good taste. Used as aliterary term, however, it refers to charming content and imagery in poetry. In“Preface to ‘The Critique ofPoetry,’” Zhong Rong of the Southern Dynasties calledon poets to express their thoughts and sentiments in their own words andopposed borrowing expressions from ancient poets. He criticized the excessiveattention to ornate language and tonal rhythms in the writing offive-character-per-line poetry. He maintained that spontaneously created poemsof good taste were most valuable. The expressions “natural” and “simple and unaffected” in later literary criticisms contain Zhong Rong’s ideas.

例句 Examples:

◎近任昉、王元长等,词不贵奇,竞须新事,尔来作者, 浸以成俗。遂乃句无虚语,语无虚字;拘挛补衲,蠹文已甚。但自然英旨,罕直其人。(钟嵘《诗品序》)

(近来的文人任昉、王融等,不注重语言创新,争相使用各种无人用过的典故,此后的作者逐渐形成了这样的习惯。于是没有不用典故的句子,没有无来历的字词;典故与自己的文字勉强牵合拼贴,对作品破坏严重。几乎很少有诗人能够写出不假雕饰地呈现自然美和真情实感的作品。)

Ren Fang, Wang Rong and someother writers of recent times have given no attention to linguistic innovationyet vied with each other for using literary allusions that no one else has everemployed. Subsequent writers have turned this practice into a habit. And so, allsentences must contain allusions, and every word and expression has to betraceable to some sources. Allusions are clumsily tacked onto the authors’ own words,severely damaging their works. There are few poets capable of producing worksthat display the pristine beauty of nature or their genuine sentiments. (ZhongRong: Preface to “The Critique of Poetry”)

◎所示书教及诗赋杂文,观之熟矣。大略如行云流水,初无定质,但常行于所当行,常止于所不可不止,文理自然,姿态横生。(苏轼《答谢民师书》)

(你给我看的信和诗赋杂文,我阅读得很熟了。大致都像飘动着的云和流动着的水一样,本来没有固定的形态,常常是应该流动时就流动,不能不停止时就停止,文章条理自然,姿态多变而不受拘束。)

I have read with great interestthe letters, poems, and essays you have sent to me. Broadly speaking, they areall like floating clouds and flowing waters, have no set form or structure, andfrequently flow when they should flow and remain still when they must stop. Thearticles are presented in a natural way and have multiple and uninhibitedstyles. (Su Shi: A Letter of Reply to Xie Minshi)


不学《诗》,无以言

bù xué shī, wú yǐ yán

If You Do Not Study The Book ofSongs, You Will Not Be Eloquent.

不学习《诗经》,就不能提高与人交流和表达的能力。孔子时代,《诗经》象征着一个人的社会身份与文化修养。不学习《诗经》,就无法参与君子间的各种交往,就不能提高语言表达能力。孔子对《诗经》与社会交往关系的论述,实际阐明了文学的教育功能或者说文学在教育中的重要地位。

In Confucius’ time, howwell one understood The Book of Songs was a sign of his social status andcultural attainment. If one did not study it, one would find it difficult toimprove one’s ability to express oneself and toconverse with people of high social status. Confucius’elaboration on the relationship between studying The Book of Songs and socialinteraction actually expounds on the importance of literature in education.

例句 Example:

◎尝独立,鲤过于庭。曰:“学《诗》乎?”对曰:“未也。”“不学《诗》,无以言。”(《论语?季氏》)

(孔子曾独自站在堂上,儿子伯鱼从堂下庭院经过,孔子问他:“学习《诗经》了吗?”伯鱼回答:“没有。”孔子说:“不学习《诗经》,就不会交流与表达。”)

Confucius was standing alone inthe central hall when his son Boyu walked across the front yard. Confuciusasked, “Have you studied The Book of Songs?” “Notyet,” was the reply. Confucius then said, “If you do not study it, you will not be able to express yourselfproperly.” (The Analects)


有德者必有言

yǒu dé zhě bì yǒu yán

Virtuous People Are Sure toProduce Fine Writing.

品德高尚的人一定有著述或妙文传世。儒家认为作家的人品(道德修养)与作品(文章价值)往往有内在的联系,品德高尚的人文章自然高妙,而善写文章的人却未必道德高尚,以此提出作家著述应以传播道德为使命,道德文章要相互统一。但后世儒家文士有时过于强调文章的道德作用与作家自身品德对文章的影响从而忽视了文学自身的创作特点与价值。

Virtuous people are sure towrite fine works which will be passed on to later generations. According toConfucianism, the moral character of a writer determines the value of his work,virtuous people would naturally write well, but those who wrote well might notnecessarily be virtuous. Therefore, authors should write to disseminate moralvalues; virtue and writings should be consistent. However, later Confucianscholars sometimes overemphasized the influence that ethics and the authors’ moralcharacter had on their writings to the neglect of the characteristics andvalues of literary creation per se.

例句 Examples:

◎子曰:“有德者必有言,有言者不必有德。”(《论语?宪问》)

(孔子说:“道德高尚的人,一定有名言传世;有名言传世的人,不一定道德高尚。”)

Confucius said, “Virtuouspeople are sure to have good writings or words to pass on to later generations,but it is not always true the other way round.” (TheAnalects)

◎丈夫处世,怀宝挺秀。辨雕万物,智周宇宙。立德何隐,含道必授。(刘勰《文心雕龙?诸子》)

(大丈夫活在世上,应该身怀才能,超群出众,雄辩的文辞可以摹写万物,周全的智慧可以穷尽宇宙奥秘。何须隐藏自己立德的志向,掌握了道就一定要广泛传授。)

A man of character shouldpossess exceptional capability and his eloquent expressions should portrayeverything truthfully. His great wisdom should enable him to explain all thingsunder heaven. He does not need to hide his aspirations to serve as a model ofvirtue. If he has come to a good understanding of Dao, he surely willdisseminate it extensively. (Liu Xie: The Literary Mind and the Carving ofDragons)


厉与西施,道通为一

lài yǔ Xīshī, dào tōng wéi yī

A Scabby Person and theBeautiful Lady Xishi Are the Same in the Eyes of Dao.

身长癞疮的人与美丽的西施,从道的角度看都可相通为一。厉,通“癞”,指长有癞疮的人。这是庄子关于审美相对性的著名论述。原意指身长癞疮的人与著名的美女没有区别,因为她们都是“道”的产物及体现。美丑的判断只是人们主观上的感觉而已,而且美丑之间还可相互转化。庄子的这一思想,强调从造物的本原看,美丑都符合道,都具有内在的同一性。这个思想启发后世的文艺评论家从相反相成的维度去看待自然万物与文学创作。

This is a famous statement madeby Zhuangzi on how beauty is relative. Originally it meant there was nodifference between a beauty and an ugly person, because they both came from andreflected Dao. The character 厉 meant 癞 (covered inscabs) in ancient Chinese. Whether a person is beautiful or ugly is but asubjective perspective in the mind of the beholder. Besides, beauty can turninto ugliness, and vice versa. Zhuangzi, from the perspective of the origin ofall things, stressed that beauty and ugliness are both in accord with Dao andare inherently the same. This idea has encouraged later literary critics tolook at all things, including literary works, from the perspective thatopposite things complement each other.

例句 Examples:

◎举莛与楹,厉与西施,恢诡谲怪,道通为一。(《庄子?齐物论》)

(细小的草茎与高大的庭柱,身长癞疮的人与美丽的西施,还有各种诡变怪异的事物,从道的角度来说都可相通为一。)

In the light of Dao, a smallblade of grass or a tall pillar, someone as ugly as a favus patient or someoneas beautiful as Lady Xishi, as well as crafty and strange things, are all thesame. (Zhuangzi)

◎大用外腓,真体内充。(司空图《二十四诗品?雄浑》)

(道表现于各种客观事物,而真实的精神本质却是内蕴其中的。)

Dao manifests in an array ofobjective things, but its genuine spirit lies within them. (Sikong Tu:Twenty-Four Styles of Poetry)


乐而不淫,哀而不伤

lè ér bùyín,āi ér bù shāng

Express Enjoyment WithoutIndulgence and Express Grief Without Excessive Distress

快乐而不放纵,悲哀而不伤身。原是孔子对于《诗经?周南?关雎》中有关青年男女爱情描写的评语,后世儒家将其作为倡导诗歌及其他文学作品中正平和、情理谐和之美的基本规范与评价标准。这一术语与儒家提倡的中庸思想相一致。近现代以来,其思想内涵也因受到时代潮流冲击而不断更新。

This is what Confucius said ofthe description of love between young men and women in the poem entitled “Guan Ju” in “Ballads of Zhounan,” The Book of Songs. Later Confucian scholars regarded this as abasic requirement for poems and other literary works to advocate impartiality,peace of mind, and harmony between emotion and reason, making it a criterionfor evaluating literary works. Its connotation is in accord with Zhongyong (thegolden mean) of Confucianism. In the more recent history, the connotation ofthe term has been continuously renewed to keep pace with the times.

例句 Examples:

◎《关雎》乐而不淫,哀而不伤。(《论语?八佾》)

(《关雎》快乐而不放纵,悲哀而不伤身。)

The poem “Guan Ju” expresses enjoyment without indulgence and grief without excessivedistress. (The Analects)

◎《国风》好色而不淫,《小雅》怨诽而不乱。(司马迁《史记?屈原贾生列传》)

(《国风》虽然描写爱恋情欲,但是并不放纵;《小雅》虽有怨恨与批评,但是并不煽动祸乱。)

Ballads from the states expresspassion of love without indulgence. Minor court hymns make complaints andcriticisms without inciting trouble. (Sima Qian: Records of the Historian)


声一无听,物一无文

shēng yī wú tīng,wù yī wú wén

A Single Note Does Not Compose aMelodious Tune, Nor Does a Single Color Make a Beautiful Pattern.

单一声响不构成动听的旋律,单一颜色不构成美丽的花纹。其本质强调文学艺术的美在于多样性的统一与和谐,只有在多样性的统一与和谐中才能创造美。这一命题后来构成中国古代文艺理论的重要原则,推动文艺的繁荣与发展。

This statement suggests that thebeauty of literature and art lies in the unity and harmony of diverse elements.It became an important principle in ancient Chinese theories on literature andart, and facilitated the development of literature and art.

例句 Examples:

◎声一无听,物一无文,味一无果,物一无讲。(《国语?郑语》)

(单一声响不能构成动听的旋律,单一颜色不能构成美丽的花纹,单一味道不能成为美食,单一事物无法进行比较。)

A single note does not compose amelodious tune; a single color does not form a beautiful pattern; a singleflavor does not make a delicious meal; and a single thing has nothing tocompare with. (Discourses on Governance of the States)

◎五色杂而成黼黻,五音比而成韶夏,五性发而为辞章,神理之数也。(刘勰《文心雕龙?情采》)

(多种颜色的丝才能绣成美丽的花纹,多种声音配合成动听的音乐,多种情感抒写成美妙的辞章,这是自然之理呀!)

It is natural that silk ofdifferent colors can be used to embroider a beautiful pattern, different notesto produce melodious music, and expressions of different feelings to present afine work of literary art. (Liu Xie: The Literary Mind and the Carving ofDragons)


象外之象,景外之景

xiàng wàizhī xiàng,jǐng wài zhī jǐng

The Image Beyond an Image, theScene Beyond a Scene

欣赏诗歌的过程中所产生的文本形象之外的第二艺术形象,是读者经联想产生的精神意象。前一个“象”“景”指诗歌作品中直接描写的物象和景象,后一个“象”、“景”则是指由此引发读者多方面联想所营造出的新的意象和意境。由道家与《周易》关于“言”(语言)、“意”(思想或意义)、“象”(象征某种深意的具体形象)三者关系的学说发展而来。魏晋至唐代的诗学倡导“象外之象,景外之景”,旨在追求文本之外的精神蕴涵和意象之美。这一术语同时也表现了中华民族的艺术趣味与审美境界。

Readers of poetry create imagesand scenes in their minds based on what they are reading. These are the readers’ imaginationsbased on what is depicted in the poems. The term comes from Daoist theoriesabout the relationships between discourses, ideas or meanings, and images thatsymbolize profound meaning in The Book of Changes. From the Wei, Jin to theTang dynasties, poetry critics sought “the image beyondan image, the scene beyond a scene” in order to pursuethe spiritual implications and the beauty of images that are beyond textualdescriptions. This term gives expression to the artistic and aesthetic tastesand ideals of the Chinese nation.

例句 Examples:

◎诗家之景,如蓝田日暖,良玉生烟,可望而不可置于眉睫之前也。象外之象,景外之景,岂容易可谈哉!(司空图《与极浦书》)

(诗歌所描写的景致,犹如蓝田蕴藏着美玉,玉的烟气在温暖的阳光中若隐若现,可以远远望见,但是不能就近清楚地观察。通过欣赏诗歌景象而产生的之外的景象,岂可容易表达出来呀!)

The imagery of poets is like thesunshine warming Lantian so that fine jades under its ground issue smoke: Theycan be seen from afar but not observed right before your eyes. The image beyondan image, the scene beyond a scene—are they not simply beyond words!(Sikong Tu: Letter to Wang Jipu)

◎盖诗之所以为诗者,其神在象外,其象在言外,其言在意外。(彭辂《诗集自序》)

(大概诗之所以成为诗,就在于神韵在物象之外,物象在语言之外,语言在意义之外。)

That which makes a poem a poemis a poetic appeal beyond the image, an image beyond the words and words sayingthings beyond their meaning. (Peng Lu: Preface to Collected Poems of Peng Lu)


信言不美,美言不信

xìn yán bù měi,měi yán bù xìn

Sincere Words May Not BePleasant to the Ear; Flowery Rhetoric May Not Be Sincere.

可信的话并不漂亮,漂亮的话多不可信。老子鉴于当时社会风气与文风的浮华不实,倡导返朴归真与自然平淡的生活方式和文学风格。魏晋时代,文人崇尚自然素朴,反对虚浮华丽的创作风气,出现了像陶渊明这样伟大的诗人,文艺创作也倡导真实自然的思想与风格。自此之后,中国古代文艺以素朴自然为最高的审美境界。

To address the extravagance insocial mores and in the style of writing of his time, Laozi advocated simpleand natural lifestyles and literary presentations. During the Wei and Jindynasties, men of letters valued natural and simple literary styles and wereopposed to extravagant and superficial styles. This line of thought led to theemergence of great poets like Tao Yuanming, and shaped literary writings toreflect direct thoughts and natural expressions. Subsequently, ancient Chineseliterature and art took simplicity and naturalness as the highest aestheticstandards.

例句 Examples:

◎信言不美,美言不信。善者不辩,辩者不善。(《老子?八十一章》)

(可信的话并不漂亮,漂亮的话多不可信。善良的人往往不能能言善辩,能言善辩的人往往不善良。)

Sincere words may not bepleasant to the ear; flowery rhetoric may not be sincere. A kind-hearted personmay not be an eloquent speaker; a glib person is often not kind. (Laozi)

◎老子疾伪,故称“美言不信”,而五千精妙,则非弃美矣。(刘勰《文心雕龙?情采》)

(老子憎恶虚伪矫饰,所以他认为“漂亮的话多不可信”。但他自己写的《道德经》五千言,思想深刻而文笔优美,可见他并没有摒弃文章之美。)

Laozi detested pretense, so hesaid, “Flowery rhetoric words may not be sincere.”However, the 5,000-word Dao De Jing (another name of Laozi) he wrote is notonly profound in ideas but reads beautifully. That means he was not opposed towritings using fine words. (Liu Xie: The Literary Mind and the Carving ofDragons)




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