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“中华思想文化术语传播工程”首批81条术语(第四波)

[日期:2015-01-14] 来源:教育部新闻办  作者:微言教育 [字体: ]

经典 | “直寻”啥意思你造吗?81个词语带你了解中华思想文化(第四波)


教育部、国家语委近日发布“中华思想文化术语传播工程”首批术语。对“仁”、“义”、“道”等81条反映中华传统文化特征与思维方式的核心术语,中国官方正式对外发布了简明中文释义和英文翻译。今天,“微言教育”将这81条核心术语的内容全部展示给大家。下面这15个经典词语是第四波,我们一起学习吧。

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阴阳yīnyáng Yin and Yang

本义指物体对于日光的向背,向日为“阳”,背日为“阴”。引申而有两重含义:其一,指天地之间性质相反的两种气;其二,指两种最基本的矛盾势力或属性,凡动的、热的、在上的、向外的、明亮的、亢进的、强壮的为“阳”,凡静的、寒的、在下的、向内的、晦暗的、减退的、虚弱的为“阴”。“阴”“阳”或“阴气”“阳气”的相互作用决定着万物的生成及存在状态。阴阳理论后来成为古人说明和理解宇宙万物、社会和人伦秩序的基础,如天阳地阴、君阳臣阴、夫阳妻阴等,阳贵阴贱,阳主阴从。

The primary meaning of yin andyang is the orientation of things in relation to the sun, with yang meaning thesunny side and yin the shady side. There are two extended meanings: 1) two opposite kinds of qi (气) in nature; and 2) two basic contrary forces or qualities that coexist,thus the active, hot, upward, outward, bright, forward, and strong are yang,while the passive, cold, downward, inward, dark, backward, and weak are yin.The interaction between yin and yang, or yin qi and yang qi, determines the formation and existence of all things. The theory of yin and yang later became the basis for ancient Chinese to explain and understand the universe and everything in it, social order, and human relations. For example, heaven isyang and earth is yin, ruler is yang and subordinates are yin, husband is yangand wife is yin, noble is yang and ignoble is yin, leading is yang andfollowing is yin.

例句 Examples:

◎万物负阴而抱阳,冲气以为和。(《老子•四十二章》)

(万物背阴而向阳,阴阳两气互相激荡而成调和状态。)

All things stand, facing yang and against yin. The interaction between yin and yang creates a state of harmony. (Laozi)

◎阴阳无所独行。(董仲舒《春秋繁露•基义》)

(阴与阳不能单独发生作用。)

Yin and yang cannot work without each other. (Dong Zhongshu: Notes to The Spring and Autumn Annals)


有无yǒuwú You (Being) and Wu (Non-being)

“有无”有三种不同含义:其一,指个体事物的不同部分,实有的部分为“有”,空虚的部分为“无”;其二,指个体事物在生成、存在、消亡过程中的不同阶段或状态,既有之后、未消亡之前的状态为“有”,未有之前与既终之后的状态为“无”;其三,有形、有名的具体事物或其总和为“有”,超越一切个体事物的无形、无名的本体或本原为“无”。就第三个意义而言,有些哲学家认为“无”是世界的本体或本原,“有”生于“无”;另一些哲学家则认为“有”才是更根本的,反对“有”生于“无”。在“有无”对待的关系中,“有”与“无”既相互区别,又相互依赖。

The term has three definitions.First, it describes two different dimensions of things: one is real and theother unreal. Second, it refers to two different stages or states of a thing during its generation, existence, and demise. You (being) refers to the stateof a thing after it has come into being and before it dies out; wu (non-being)refers to the state of a thing before its birth and after its death. Third, yourefers to any tangible or identifiable thing or the sum total of such things;wu refers to the original source or ontological existence, which is intangibleand unidentifiable, and transcends all specific objects. With regard to the third definition, some philosophers consider wu to be the original source orontological existence of the world, and you comes from wu; others believe thatyou is fundamentally significant, and dispute the notion that you owes its existence to wu. Despite their differences, you and wu are mutually dependent.

例句 Examples:

◎故有之以为利,无之以为用。(《老子•十一章》)

(所以说事物“有”的部分带给人便利,“无”的部分发挥了事物的作用。)

Therefore, the being part of anobject provides ease and convenience, whereas the non-being part performs thefunctions of that object. (Laozi)

◎有之所始,以无为本。(王弼《老子注》)

(“有”之所以肇始存在,以“无”为根本。)

The formation and existence ofyou originate from wu. (Wang Bi: Annotations on Laozi)


缘起yuánqǐ Dependent Origination

梵文pratītyasamutpāda的意译。“缘起”就是“依缘(一定的条件)而起(发生)”。意思是一切事物、现象乃至社会的一切活动都是因缘和合体,都处于相续不断的因缘关系中,依一定条件而有生灭变化。“缘起”是佛教思想的起点,也是佛教各宗派所共有的理论基础。佛教以此解释宇宙万物、社会乃至各种精神现象变化无常、生灭变化的内在法则。

The term is a translation of theSanskrit word pratītyasamutpāda. Yuan (缘) means conditions; qi (起) meansorigination. That is to say, all things, phenomena, and social activities ariseout of the combinations of causes and conditions. They exist in the continuousrelationship between causes and conditions. Thus all things originate, change,and demise depending upon certain conditions. Dependent origination is thefountainhead of Buddhist thought and forms the common theoretical basis for allBuddhist schools and sects. Buddhism uses this concept to explain everything inthe universe, the constant changes of social and spiritual phenomena, and theinternal laws of origination, change, and demise.

例句 Example:

◎物从因缘故不有,缘起故不无。(僧肇《肇论》引《中论》)

(万物依因缘的聚合而成,故不能说“有”;又依一定的缘而有生灭变化,故不能说“无”。)

All things originate out of thecombinations of causes and conditions, thus they cannot be regarded as originalexistence; at the same time, they arise, change, and demise upon certainconditions, so they cannot be said as non-existence. (Sengzhao: Treatises ofSengzhao)


知音zhīyīn Resonance and Empathy

体会和理解文艺作品的意蕴与作者的思想感情。原指音乐欣赏中的知己,后经魏晋南北朝时期文艺批评家的阐释,用来泛指文艺鉴赏中的心心相印、互相理解。“知音”作为文学批评的核心概念,涉及文艺创作与鉴赏中的个体差异与共性等诸多问题,有着丰富的精神蕴涵,与西方的读者反应批评理论、接受美学、解释学等基本思想有一致之处。

The term is about appreciatingand understanding the ideas in literary and artistic works and the thoughts oftheir authors. The original meaning was feeling a sense of resonance withmusic. It was later extended by literary critics in the Wei, Jin, and Southernand Northern dynasties to mean resonance or empathy between writers/artists andtheir readers/viewers. As a core concept in literary criticism, it touches uponboth general and particular issues in artistic creation and appreciation,involves rich intellectual implications, and meshes with the audience’s response inWestern criticism, receptive aesthetics, and hermeneutics.

例句 Example:

◎是故不知声者不可与言音,不知音者不可与言乐,知乐则几于礼矣。(《礼记•乐记》)

(不懂自然声音的人无法与其谈论音律,不懂音律的人无法与其谈论音乐,通晓音乐的人也就接近懂得礼了。)

Talking about melody withsomeone who has no ear for natural sounds would be a waste of time, and sowould discussing music with someone who knows nothing about melody. One whoknows music is close to understanding social norms. (The Book of Rites)


直寻zhíxún Direct Quest

诗人即兴而感,直接抒写。这是南朝钟嵘《诗品》中针对诗歌过多使用典故的现象提出的创作主张,他汲取了道家的自然思想,通过考察前人的优秀诗篇,提炼出一种新的诗歌创作方式——“直寻”,即直接描写所感知事物,直接抒发内心情感并创造出情景契合的审美意象。明清时期诗学的“性灵说”受到其影响。

A poet should directly expresshis thoughts and sentiments when he is inspired. This is a concept for writingpoems proposed by poetry critic Zhong Rong of the Southern Dynasties in hiswork “The Critique of Poetry” as a reaction to theexcessive use of allusions and quotes from earlier works. Inspired bynaturalist ideas of Daoism and by his own reading of the fine works of earlierpoets, he developed a new form of poetic creation which he named “direct quest.” By this, he meant directlydescribing matters that one senses and learns about, directly expressing one’s inner feelings, and creating aesthetic images in which thesensibilities match up with current realities. The theory of naturaldisposition and intelligence used in Ming- and Qing-dynasty poetics wasinfluenced by this idea.

例句 Examples:
◎观古今胜语,多非补假,皆由直寻。(钟嵘《诗品序》)

(综观古今名篇佳句,大都不是借用前人诗句或使用典故,而是直接从自身体验中寻求而得。)

A comprehensive survey of thebest-known works of ancient and current poets shows that most of the poets didnot borrow favored lines or literary allusions from their predecessors, butdirectly sought inspirations from their personal experiences. (Zhong Rong:Preface to “The Critique of Poetry”)

◎我手写我口,古岂能拘牵?(黄遵宪《杂感五首》之二)

(我要用我的文字来表达我想说的意思,怎么能够为古人文章的思想内容和文字形式所束缚?)

Since I want to use my own wordsto express my feelings, how can I let myself be bound by the content and formsof ancient writings? (Huang Zunxian: Five Poems on Random Thoughts)


中国zhōngguó Zhongguo (China)

古代华夏族、汉民族以黄河中下游流域为中心生活和活动的区域。“中国”最初是一个地域兼文化的概念。华夏族多建国于黄河流域一带,以为居天下之中,故称“中国”(与“四方”相对)。后泛指中原地区以及在中原地区建立的政权和国家。晚清以来,“中国”始专指我国的全部领土与主权,现在只作为“中华人民共和国”的简称。

This term refers to the areasalong the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River where ancient Huaxia (华夏) people orthe Han people lived. Originally, the term Zhongguo (中国)meant both this region and its culture. The Huaxia people established theirstates along the Yellow River. Believing the areas were located in the centerof the world, they called it Zhongguo (the Central Country, as against otherareas around it). Later, the term was used to refer to the Central Plains inNorth China and the states founded in that area. Since the late Qing Dynasty,Zhongguo has been used to refer specifically to all the territory of China andits sovereignty. Currently, Zhongguo is used as the abbreviated form of thePeople’s Republic of China.

例句 Examples:

◎惠此中国,以绥四方。(《诗经•大雅•民劳》)

(爱护京师百姓,安抚四方诸侯。)

Give benefit to the people inthe capital, and reassure and pacify all the feudal dukes and princes in thecountry. (The Book of Songs)

◎若能以吴越之众与中国抗衡,不如早与之绝。(《三国志•蜀书•诸葛亮传》)

(如果能够以江东的兵力与中原抗衡,不如早与他们断绝交往。)

If the areas of Wu and Yue(under the control of Sun Quan) could stand up to confront the central region(under the control of Cao Cao), the former should better cut ties with thelatter. (History of the Three Kingdoms)


中华zhōnghuá Zhonghua

“中华”是“中国”与“华夏”复合的简称。“华”同“花”,喻指文化灿烂。华夏的先民建国于黄河中下游,自认为居天下之中央,且又文化发达,所以称“中华”。随着华夏族为主体的多民族国家的不断扩张,凡所统辖之地,皆称中华。在近现代历史中,“中华”成为指称中国、中国人及中国文化的一种符号。

This term is an abbreviation ofthe compound word formed by Zhongguo (中国) and Huaxia (华夏). Here, hua (华) also means “flower” or “flowery,” which was used as an analogy for a splendid culture. The ancestorsof the Huaxia people established their state in the middle and lower reaches ofthe Yellow River, which they thought was the center (zhong) of the world andwhich had a flourishing culture (hua), so the state was called Zhonghua. Thismulti-ethnic state, with the Huaxia people as the predominant group of itspopulation, later began its territorial expansions, and the places where itextended to became part of Zhonghua. In modern times, Zhonghua became a termdenoting China, the Chinese people, and its culture.

例句 Example:

◎中华者,中国也。亲被王教,自属中国,衣冠威仪,习俗孝悌,居身礼义,故谓之中华。(《唐律名例疏议释义》)

(中华即中国。自身接受了王道教化,自然就属于中国了,穿衣戴帽有威仪,风俗讲究孝悌,立身处世追求礼义,所以称之为中华。)

Zhonghua refers to China. Underthe wise rule of the sage king, all his subjects belong to China. They aredressed in a dignified manner, practice filial piety, love and respect theelderly, and follow moral norms in personal and social conduct. This is thecountry called Zhonghua. (Commentary and Explanation on Well-Known Law Cases ofthe Tang Dynasty)


中庸zhōngyōng Zhongyong (Golden Mean)

孔子和儒家所肯定的最高德行。“中”指言行没有过或不及的状态或标准。凡事都有某种限度,超过和达不到这个限度都是不好的。“庸”包含两个相关的含义:其一指平常,其二指恒常。“中”只有在平常日用之中才能恒常不易。“中庸”即指在人伦日用中始终遵循、符合无过无不及的标准。

Zhongyong (golden mean) wasconsidered to be the highest level of virtue by Confucius and Confucianscholars. Zhong (中) means moderate in one’s words and deeds.Everything has its limits, and neither exceeding nor falling short of thelimits is desirable. Yong (庸) has two meanings. One iscommon or ordinary and the other is unchanging. Moderation can be maintained forover a long time only when one practices it in everyday life. Zhongyong meansthe standard of moderation that one should follow in dealing with others and inone’s everyday conduct.

例句 Examples:

◎中庸之为德也,其至矣乎!(《论语•雍也》)

(中庸作为一种道德,是最高的准则吧!)

Zhongyong is the highest ofvirtues. (The Analects)

◎中庸者,不偏不倚、无过不及而平常之理。(朱熹《中庸章句》)

(中庸就是不偏颇,没有过或不及的平常的道理。)

Zhongyong does not bend one wayor the other; it is the common principle of neither exceeding nor falling shortof the line. (Zhu Xi: Commentary on The Doctrine of the Mean)


滋味zīwèi Nuanced Flavor

诗歌中能够使欣赏者反复回味的意蕴,实即诗歌美感。南朝诗论家钟嵘在《诗品》中提出,五言诗歌创作时应重视内容与形式的配合,从而使欣赏者在品读中回味无穷。后来“滋味”也指从事文艺创作时的一种趣味。

This term refers to an effectthat allows lasting satisfaction and rewarding in poetry appreciation, which isa particular sense of beauty offered by poetry. In the Southern Dynasties,poetry critic Zhong Rong proposed in “The Critique of Poetry” that in writing five-character-per-line poems, one should payspecial attention to the combination of form and content, so that readers couldenjoy a poem with inexhaustible delight. Later, nuanced flavor also came torefer to a kind of taste in literary and artistic creation.

例句 Example:

◎五言居文词之要,是众作之有滋味者也。(钟嵘《诗品序》)

(五言诗在各种诗体中居于首位,是众多作品中最有审美意味的。)

Five-character-per-line poemsconstitute the most important poetic form and are most richly imbued withnuanced flavors. (Zhong Rong: Preface to “The Critique of Poetry”)


自然zìrán Naturalness

事物的本来状态,旨在与“人为”的意义相区别。哲学意义上的“自然”的概念,与常识性的“自然界”的概念不同。在日常语义中,“自然界”指人与社会之外的物质世界,这一领域是不受人为干扰的。但从哲学层面来看,人与社会也有其“自然”状态。在政治哲学领域,“自然”特指百姓在不受行政教化干预的情况下自己而然的状态。道家主张,君主治理国家应遵循、顺应百姓的“自然”状态。

The term refers to theprimordial state of things, unaffected by the various meanings imposed on it byman. The concept of naturalness in philosophy is different from that of naturein the ordinary sense. In daily language, the term refers to the physicalworld, which is independent of human interference, as opposed to human society.In philosophy, there is also a natural state of man and society. In politicalphilosophy, “naturalness” specifically applies to thenatural state enjoyed by ordinary people free from the intervention ofgovernment supervision and moral edification. Daoism holds that in governance amonarch should conform to the natural state of the people.

例句 Examples:

◎道法自然。(《老子•二十五章》)

(道以自然为法则。)

Dao takes naturalness as itslaw. (Laozi)

◎天地任自然,无为无造,万物自相治理。(王弼《老子注》)

(天地听任万物之自然,不施为造作,而让万物自己相互治理。)

Heaven and earth alloweverything to follow their natural course without imposing any interference sothat all things interact and govern themselves. (Wang Bi: Annotations on Laozi)


宗法zōngfǎ Feudal Clan System

中国古代以家族为中心,按血统、嫡庶来组织、治理家族、国家、社会的原则、方法。宗法由父系氏族的家长制演化而来,定型于西周,与封建制等互为表里。宗法分为家国两个层面,在家的层面,宗族的嫡长子是家族的嫡系继承人,拥有家族的最高权力,其余家族成员依据亲疏、世系各自确定其在家族中的地位和权力。帝王公侯或者世家大族的宗族等级制扩展到国家的层面,对于王位继承与国家政治具有决定性的作用。宗法制数千年来对中国人的生活方式、思维方式影响深远。

This system was central to lifein ancient China; it was a system of principles and measures by which a clan, astate, or society was run, based on bloodline or whether a son was born fromthe wife or a concubine. The feudal clan system evolved from the patriarchalchiefs system. Taking shape during the Western Zhou Dynasty, this system andthe feudal system were mutually dependent and complementary. The feudal clansystem had two levels: one was the familial level, where the eldest son by thewife was the first in line to inherit the family’s property and thus enjoyed thegreatest authority. Other members of the clan were allotted their status andauthority according to their closeness of kinship, ancestry, or seniority. Inthe families of the emperor, kings, and other nobility, this pattern wasextended to the state or national level. It had a decisive impact on theinheritance of the imperial throne and on state politics. The feudal clansystem greatly influenced the Chinese way of life and thinking for severalthousand years.

例句 Example:

◎宗法者,佐国家养民教民之原本也。(冯桂芬《复宗法议》)

(所谓宗法,是帮助国家养育、教化民众的原始基础。)

The feudal clan system is astate’s bedrock for fostering and educating its people. (Feng Guifen: MyArgument for Restoring the Feudal Clan System)


风雅颂fēngyǎsòng Ballad, Court Hymn, and Eulogy

《诗经》中依体裁与音乐对诗歌所分出的类型。“风(国风)”是不同地区的地方音乐,大部分是民歌;“雅”是宫廷宴享或朝会时的乐歌,分为“大雅”与“小雅”,大部分是贵族文人的作品;“颂”是宗庙祭祀用的舞曲歌辞,内容多是歌颂祖先的功业。“雅”“颂”指雅正之音,而“国风”系民间乐歌,因此“风雅颂”既是《诗经》的体裁,同时也有高雅纯正的含义。“风雅”后来一般指典雅与高雅的事物。

In The Book of Songs, thecontent is divided into three categories according to style and tune: feng(ballads), ya (court hymns), and song (eulogies). Ballads are music fromdifferent regions, mostly folk songs. Court hymns, divided into daya (majorhymns) and xiaoya (minor hymns), are songs sung at court banquets or grandceremonies. They are mostly the works by lettered noblemen. Eulogies are ritualor sacrificial dance music and songs, most of which praise the achievements ofancestors. Court hymns and eulogies are highbrow songs while ballads arelowbrow ones. Therefore, ballads, court hymns, and eulogies not only refer tothe styles of The Book of Songs but also classify the songs into highbrow andlowbrow categories. Later on fengya (风雅) generally referred to anythingelegant.

例句 Example:

◎故《诗》有六义焉:一曰风,二曰赋,三曰比,四曰兴,五曰雅,六曰颂。(《诗大序》)

(所以《诗经》有六项基本内容:即风、赋、比、兴、雅、颂。)

Therefore The Book of Songs hassix basic elements: ballads, narratives, analogies, association, court hymns,and eulogies. (Preface to The Book of Songs)


赋比兴fùbǐxīng Narrative, Analogy, andAssociation

《诗经》创作的三种表现手法。“赋”是铺陈事物直接叙述;“比”是类比;“兴”是先言他物以引出所咏之词,有两层含义,一是即兴感发,二是在感发时借客观景物婉转地表达出某种思想感情。“赋比兴”为汉代儒家所总结和提出,后来演变为中国古代文学创作的基本原则和方法。

These are the three ways ofexpression employed in The Book of Songs: a narrative is a direct reference toan object or an event, an analogy metaphorically likens one thing to another,and an association is an impromptu expression of a feeling, a mood or athought, or using an objective thing as metaphor for sensibilities. Confucianscholars of the Han Dynasty summarized and formulated this concept ofnarrative, analogy, and association, which later became the basic principle andmethod in classical Chinese literary creation.

例句 Examples:

◎赋、比、兴是《诗》之所用,风、雅、颂是《诗》之成形。(《诗大序》孔颖达正义)

(赋、比、兴是《诗经》创作的三种手法,风、雅、颂是《诗经》体制上的定型。)

In The Book of Songs, narrative,analogy, and association are three techniques in its creation, whereas ballads,court hymns, and eulogies represent three established styles of the poems.(Kong Yingda: Correct Meaning of “Preface to The Book of Songs”)

◎赋者,敷陈其事而直言之者也;比者,以彼物比此物也;兴者,先言他物以引起所咏之词也。(朱熹《诗集传》)

(赋,是铺陈事物而直接叙述;比,就是以他事物比喻此事物;兴,就是先说他物然后再引出所吟咏的事物。)

A narrative is a directdescription of an object, an event or a relationship. An analogy metaphoricallylikens one thing to another. An association employs a metaphor as a lead-in forthe real subject of a poem. (Zhu Xi: Studies on The Book of Songs)




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