经典 | “直寻”啥意思你造吗？81个词语带你了解中华思想文化（第四波）
阴阳yīnyáng Yin and Yang
The primary meaning of yin andyang is the orientation of things in relation to the sun, with yang meaning thesunny side and yin the shady side. There are two extended meanings: 1) two opposite kinds of qi (气) in nature; and 2) two basic contrary forces or qualities that coexist,thus the active, hot, upward, outward, bright, forward, and strong are yang,while the passive, cold, downward, inward, dark, backward, and weak are yin.The interaction between yin and yang, or yin qi and yang qi, determines the formation and existence of all things. The theory of yin and yang later became the basis for ancient Chinese to explain and understand the universe and everything in it, social order, and human relations. For example, heaven isyang and earth is yin, ruler is yang and subordinates are yin, husband is yangand wife is yin, noble is yang and ignoble is yin, leading is yang andfollowing is yin.
All things stand, facing yang and against yin. The interaction between yin and yang creates a state of harmony. (Laozi)
Yin and yang cannot work without each other. (Dong Zhongshu: Notes to The Spring and Autumn Annals)
有无yǒuwú You (Being) and Wu (Non-being)
The term has three definitions.First, it describes two different dimensions of things: one is real and theother unreal. Second, it refers to two different stages or states of a thing during its generation, existence, and demise. You (being) refers to the stateof a thing after it has come into being and before it dies out; wu (non-being)refers to the state of a thing before its birth and after its death. Third, yourefers to any tangible or identifiable thing or the sum total of such things;wu refers to the original source or ontological existence, which is intangibleand unidentifiable, and transcends all specific objects. With regard to the third definition, some philosophers consider wu to be the original source orontological existence of the world, and you comes from wu; others believe thatyou is fundamentally significant, and dispute the notion that you owes its existence to wu. Despite their differences, you and wu are mutually dependent.
Therefore, the being part of anobject provides ease and convenience, whereas the non-being part performs thefunctions of that object. (Laozi)
The formation and existence ofyou originate from wu. (Wang Bi: Annotations on Laozi)
缘起yuánqǐ Dependent Origination
The term is a translation of theSanskrit word pratītyasamutpāda. Yuan (缘) means conditions; qi (起) meansorigination. That is to say, all things, phenomena, and social activities ariseout of the combinations of causes and conditions. They exist in the continuousrelationship between causes and conditions. Thus all things originate, change,and demise depending upon certain conditions. Dependent origination is thefountainhead of Buddhist thought and forms the common theoretical basis for allBuddhist schools and sects. Buddhism uses this concept to explain everything inthe universe, the constant changes of social and spiritual phenomena, and theinternal laws of origination, change, and demise.
All things originate out of thecombinations of causes and conditions, thus they cannot be regarded as originalexistence; at the same time, they arise, change, and demise upon certainconditions, so they cannot be said as non-existence. (Sengzhao: Treatises ofSengzhao)
知音zhīyīn Resonance and Empathy
The term is about appreciatingand understanding the ideas in literary and artistic works and the thoughts oftheir authors. The original meaning was feeling a sense of resonance withmusic. It was later extended by literary critics in the Wei, Jin, and Southernand Northern dynasties to mean resonance or empathy between writers/artists andtheir readers/viewers. As a core concept in literary criticism, it touches uponboth general and particular issues in artistic creation and appreciation,involves rich intellectual implications, and meshes with the audience’s response inWestern criticism, receptive aesthetics, and hermeneutics.
Talking about melody withsomeone who has no ear for natural sounds would be a waste of time, and sowould discussing music with someone who knows nothing about melody. One whoknows music is close to understanding social norms. (The Book of Rites)
直寻zhíxún Direct Quest
A poet should directly expresshis thoughts and sentiments when he is inspired. This is a concept for writingpoems proposed by poetry critic Zhong Rong of the Southern Dynasties in hiswork “The Critique of Poetry” as a reaction to theexcessive use of allusions and quotes from earlier works. Inspired bynaturalist ideas of Daoism and by his own reading of the fine works of earlierpoets, he developed a new form of poetic creation which he named “direct quest.” By this, he meant directlydescribing matters that one senses and learns about, directly expressing one’s inner feelings, and creating aesthetic images in which thesensibilities match up with current realities. The theory of naturaldisposition and intelligence used in Ming- and Qing-dynasty poetics wasinfluenced by this idea.
A comprehensive survey of thebest-known works of ancient and current poets shows that most of the poets didnot borrow favored lines or literary allusions from their predecessors, butdirectly sought inspirations from their personal experiences. (Zhong Rong:Preface to “The Critique of Poetry”)
Since I want to use my own wordsto express my feelings, how can I let myself be bound by the content and formsof ancient writings? (Huang Zunxian: Five Poems on Random Thoughts)
中国zhōngguó Zhongguo (China)
This term refers to the areasalong the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River where ancient Huaxia (华夏) people orthe Han people lived. Originally, the term Zhongguo (中国)meant both this region and its culture. The Huaxia people established theirstates along the Yellow River. Believing the areas were located in the centerof the world, they called it Zhongguo (the Central Country, as against otherareas around it). Later, the term was used to refer to the Central Plains inNorth China and the states founded in that area. Since the late Qing Dynasty,Zhongguo has been used to refer specifically to all the territory of China andits sovereignty. Currently, Zhongguo is used as the abbreviated form of thePeople’s Republic of China.
Give benefit to the people inthe capital, and reassure and pacify all the feudal dukes and princes in thecountry. (The Book of Songs)
If the areas of Wu and Yue(under the control of Sun Quan) could stand up to confront the central region(under the control of Cao Cao), the former should better cut ties with thelatter. (History of the Three Kingdoms)
This term is an abbreviation ofthe compound word formed by Zhongguo (中国) and Huaxia (华夏). Here, hua (华) also means “flower” or “flowery,” which was used as an analogy for a splendid culture. The ancestorsof the Huaxia people established their state in the middle and lower reaches ofthe Yellow River, which they thought was the center (zhong) of the world andwhich had a flourishing culture (hua), so the state was called Zhonghua. Thismulti-ethnic state, with the Huaxia people as the predominant group of itspopulation, later began its territorial expansions, and the places where itextended to became part of Zhonghua. In modern times, Zhonghua became a termdenoting China, the Chinese people, and its culture.
Zhonghua refers to China. Underthe wise rule of the sage king, all his subjects belong to China. They aredressed in a dignified manner, practice filial piety, love and respect theelderly, and follow moral norms in personal and social conduct. This is thecountry called Zhonghua. (Commentary and Explanation on Well-Known Law Cases ofthe Tang Dynasty)
中庸zhōngyōng Zhongyong (Golden Mean)
Zhongyong (golden mean) wasconsidered to be the highest level of virtue by Confucius and Confucianscholars. Zhong (中) means moderate in one’s words and deeds.Everything has its limits, and neither exceeding nor falling short of thelimits is desirable. Yong (庸) has two meanings. One iscommon or ordinary and the other is unchanging. Moderation can be maintained forover a long time only when one practices it in everyday life. Zhongyong meansthe standard of moderation that one should follow in dealing with others and inone’s everyday conduct.
Zhongyong is the highest ofvirtues. (The Analects)
Zhongyong does not bend one wayor the other; it is the common principle of neither exceeding nor falling shortof the line. (Zhu Xi: Commentary on The Doctrine of the Mean)
滋味zīwèi Nuanced Flavor
This term refers to an effectthat allows lasting satisfaction and rewarding in poetry appreciation, which isa particular sense of beauty offered by poetry. In the Southern Dynasties,poetry critic Zhong Rong proposed in “The Critique of Poetry” that in writing five-character-per-line poems, one should payspecial attention to the combination of form and content, so that readers couldenjoy a poem with inexhaustible delight. Later, nuanced flavor also came torefer to a kind of taste in literary and artistic creation.
Five-character-per-line poemsconstitute the most important poetic form and are most richly imbued withnuanced flavors. (Zhong Rong: Preface to “The Critique of Poetry”)
The term refers to theprimordial state of things, unaffected by the various meanings imposed on it byman. The concept of naturalness in philosophy is different from that of naturein the ordinary sense. In daily language, the term refers to the physicalworld, which is independent of human interference, as opposed to human society.In philosophy, there is also a natural state of man and society. In politicalphilosophy, “naturalness” specifically applies to thenatural state enjoyed by ordinary people free from the intervention ofgovernment supervision and moral edification. Daoism holds that in governance amonarch should conform to the natural state of the people.
Dao takes naturalness as itslaw. (Laozi)
Heaven and earth alloweverything to follow their natural course without imposing any interference sothat all things interact and govern themselves. (Wang Bi: Annotations on Laozi)
宗法zōngfǎ Feudal Clan System
This system was central to lifein ancient China; it was a system of principles and measures by which a clan, astate, or society was run, based on bloodline or whether a son was born fromthe wife or a concubine. The feudal clan system evolved from the patriarchalchiefs system. Taking shape during the Western Zhou Dynasty, this system andthe feudal system were mutually dependent and complementary. The feudal clansystem had two levels: one was the familial level, where the eldest son by thewife was the first in line to inherit the family’s property and thus enjoyed thegreatest authority. Other members of the clan were allotted their status andauthority according to their closeness of kinship, ancestry, or seniority. Inthe families of the emperor, kings, and other nobility, this pattern wasextended to the state or national level. It had a decisive impact on theinheritance of the imperial throne and on state politics. The feudal clansystem greatly influenced the Chinese way of life and thinking for severalthousand years.
The feudal clan system is astate’s bedrock for fostering and educating its people. (Feng Guifen: MyArgument for Restoring the Feudal Clan System)
风雅颂fēngyǎsòng Ballad, Court Hymn, and Eulogy
In The Book of Songs, thecontent is divided into three categories according to style and tune: feng(ballads), ya (court hymns), and song (eulogies). Ballads are music fromdifferent regions, mostly folk songs. Court hymns, divided into daya (majorhymns) and xiaoya (minor hymns), are songs sung at court banquets or grandceremonies. They are mostly the works by lettered noblemen. Eulogies are ritualor sacrificial dance music and songs, most of which praise the achievements ofancestors. Court hymns and eulogies are highbrow songs while ballads arelowbrow ones. Therefore, ballads, court hymns, and eulogies not only refer tothe styles of The Book of Songs but also classify the songs into highbrow andlowbrow categories. Later on fengya (风雅) generally referred to anythingelegant.
Therefore The Book of Songs hassix basic elements: ballads, narratives, analogies, association, court hymns,and eulogies. (Preface to The Book of Songs)
赋比兴fùbǐxīng Narrative, Analogy, andAssociation
These are the three ways ofexpression employed in The Book of Songs: a narrative is a direct reference toan object or an event, an analogy metaphorically likens one thing to another,and an association is an impromptu expression of a feeling, a mood or athought, or using an objective thing as metaphor for sensibilities. Confucianscholars of the Han Dynasty summarized and formulated this concept ofnarrative, analogy, and association, which later became the basic principle andmethod in classical Chinese literary creation.
In The Book of Songs, narrative,analogy, and association are three techniques in its creation, whereas ballads,court hymns, and eulogies represent three established styles of the poems.(Kong Yingda: Correct Meaning of “Preface to The Book of Songs”)
A narrative is a directdescription of an object, an event or a relationship. An analogy metaphoricallylikens one thing to another. An association employs a metaphor as a lead-in forthe real subject of a poem. (Zhu Xi: Studies on The Book of Songs)