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“中华思想文化术语传播工程”首批81条术语(第三波)

[日期:2015-01-14] 来源:教育部新闻办  作者:微言教育 [字体: ]

经典 | “玄览”啥意思你造吗?81个词语带你了解中华思想文化(第三波)


教育部、国家语委近日发布“中华思想文化术语传播工程”首批术语。对“仁”、“义”、“道”等81条反映中华传统文化特征与思维方式的核心术语,中国官方正式对外发布了简明中文释义和英文翻译。今天,“微言教育”将这81条核心术语的内容全部展示给大家。下面这15个经典词语是第三波,我们一起学习吧。

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神思shénsī Imaginative Contemplation

文艺创作过程中的一种精神状态,指的是作者在饱满的情感驱动下,超越时间与空间的限制,进入到自由想象或特殊的灵感状态,最后通过特定的文学艺术形象和语言而传达出来,创作出自然而美好的文艺作品。这一术语,在魏晋南北朝的文艺理论中得到广泛运用,南朝刘勰《文心雕龙》对此有专门论述。“神思”强调它是文艺创作中一种独特的心理活动,不同于其他认识活动。

The term refers to a state ofmind in the process of literary and artistic creation. It suggests that theauthor, fully inspired by emotions, transcends the constraint of time andspace, and enters into a state of free imagination or a special mood forliterary and artistic creation, before producing a natural and beautiful workof literature or art, either in language or in imagery. This term was popularlyused in literary and artistic theories of the Wei, Jin, and Southern andNorthern dynasties. Liu Xie of the Southern Dynasties devoted one chapterespecially to this term in The Literary Mind and the Carving of Dragons. Withemphasis on the unique mental activity in literary and artistic creation,imaginative contemplation is different from other cognitive activities.

例句 Examples:

◎古人云:“形在江海之上,心存魏阙之下。”神思之谓也。文之思也,其神远矣。(刘勰《文心雕龙•神思》)

(古人说:“身在民间,心却想着朝廷。”这说的就是神思。文章写作时的想象和思绪,其神奇是可以超越时空的呀!)

An ancient saying goes, “Though helives among the common folks, deep in his heart he concerns himself withaffairs of the imperial court.” This is calledimaginative contemplation. When one writes, his imaginations and thoughts maytranscend time and space. (Liu Xie: The Literary Mind and the Carving ofDragons)

◎属文之道,事出神思,感召无象,变化不穷。(萧子显《南齐书•文学传论》)

(写文章的规律,来自于神思,人对万物的感触没有形迹,变化无穷。)

The guiding principles forliterary creation come from imaginative contemplation. Man’s feelings andthoughts about the external world are formless and highly changeable. (XiaoZixian: The Book of Southern Qi)


太极tàijí Taiji (The Supreme Ultimate)

“太极”有三种不同的含义:其一,指世界的本原。但古人对“太极”的世界本原之义又有不同理解:或以“太极”为混沌未分的“气”或“元气”;或以之为世界的普遍法则,即“道”或“理”;或以之为“无”。其二,占筮术语。指奇(—)偶(--)两画尚未推演确定或蓍草混一未分的状态,是卦象的根源。其三,指空间的最高极限。

Taiji (the supreme ultimate) hasthree different meanings. First, it refers to the origin of the world. Theancient Chinese saw it either as qi (vital force) or yuanqi (primordial vitalforce) that permeates the chaotic world, or as a universal principle, i.e. Daoor li (理), or as wu (无). Second, it is used as aterm of divination, referring to the initial state before divinatory numbers,the odd number one (written as –) and the even numbertwo (written as – –), are applied or before theyarrow stems are divided. Divination is conducted on the basis of taiji. Third,it stands for the highest point or boundary of space.

例句 Examples:

◎易始于太极,太极分而为二,故生天地。(《易纬•乾凿度》)

(易起始于太极,太极一分为二,因此生成了天地。)

Changes evolve from taiji, whichgives rise to two primal forces of yin and yang. They in turn give birth toheaven and earth. (An Alternative Explanation of The Book of Changes)

◎总天地万物之理,便是太极。(《朱子语类》卷九十四)

(总合天地万物的理,便是太极。)

Taiji is the overriding law ofall things, as well as heaven and earth. (Classified Conversations of MasterZhu Xi)


体性tǐxìng Style and Temperament

作品风格与作者个性的统一与结合。是关于文学风格的重要术语。“体”指文章风格,“性”指作者个性因素。源出于刘勰《文心雕龙•体性》,该文分析了作者个性特点与文章风格有着内在的关联,文如其人。这启发了后人从作者个性着眼去分析文学作品不同的风格类型,奠定了中国古代文学风格论的基本思想。

This is an important term aboutliterary style that stresses the unity and integration of the styles ofwritings with the temperaments of their authors. The term originated from LiuXie’s The Literary Mind and the Carving of Dragons. One chapter of thebook discusses how the styles of writings are related to the temperaments ofthe writers, and argues that the writings truly reflect the temperaments oftheir authors. This has encouraged later generations to analyze differentstyles of literary works based on the authors’temperaments and became a basic line of thought on ancient Chinese literarystyle.

例句 Example:

◎夫情动而言形,理发而文见。盖沿隐以至显,因内而符外者也。然才有庸俊,气有刚柔,学有浅深,习有雅郑;并情性所铄,陶染所凝,是以笔区云谲,文苑波诡者矣。(刘勰《文心雕龙•体性》)

(情感激发而形成语言,道理表达便体现为文章。也就是将隐藏在内心的情和理逐渐彰显、由内至外的过程。不过人的才华有平凡和杰出之分,气禀有阳刚与阴柔之别,学识有浅深之异,习性有雅正和鄙俗之差。这些都是由人的先天情性所造就,并受后天的熏陶积聚而成,所以他们的创作奇谲如风云变幻,文章诡秘似海涛翻转。)

When emotions stir, they takethe form of language. When ideas emerge, they are expressed in writings. Thus theobscure becomes manifest and the internal feelings pour into the open. However,talent may be mediocre or outstanding, temperament masculine or feminine,learning deep or shallow, upbringing refined or vulgar. All this results fromdifferences in nature and nurture. Hence the unusual cloud-like variations inthe realm of writing and the mysterious wave-like undulations in the garden ofliterature. (Liu Xie: The Literary Mind and the Carving of Dragons)


体用tǐyòng Ti and Yong (Substance andUtility)

“体用”有三种不同含义:其一,形体、实体为“体”,形体、实体的功能、作用为“用”。其二,事物的本体为“体”,本体的显现、运用为“用”。其三,行事、行为的根本原则为“体”,根本原则的具体施用为“用”。在“体用”对待的关系中,“体”是基础,“用”是依赖于“体”的。

Ti and yong (substance andutility) can be understood in three different ways: 1) a physical thing and itsfunctions or roles; 2) the ontological existence of a thing and its expressionand application; and 3) the fundamental code of conduct, and its observance. Inany ti–yong relationship, ti (体) provides the basis on whichyong (用) depends.

例句 Examples:

◎天者定体之名,乾者体用之称。(《周易•乾》孔颖达正义)

(“天”是确定实体的名称,“乾”是表现实体之功用的名称。)

Tian means heaven in thephysical sense, while qian (乾) means its functions and significance. (KongYingda: Correct Meaning of The Book of Changes)

◎至微者理也,至著者象也。体用一源,显微无间。(程颐《程氏易传》)

(最隐微的是理,最显著的是象。作为本体的理和作为现象的象出自同一来源,显著与隐微之间没有差别。)

What is most subtle is li (理), while whatis most conspicuous is xiang (象). Li as the ontologicalexistence and xiang as its manifestation are of the same origin; there is nodifference between them. (Cheng Yi: Cheng Yi’sCommentary on The Book of Changes)


天下tiānxià Tianxia (All Under Heaven)

古多指天子统治范围的全部土地及统治权。古人认为,大夫的统治范围是“家”,诸侯的统治范围是“国”,天子的统治范围是“天下”。“天下”字面义是“普天之下”,实质指天子统治或名义之下的“家国”统合体所覆盖的全部疆域,并包括天下所有的人及国家的统治权。后演变指全世界。

This term referred mainly to allthe land under the name of the Son of Heaven and the right to rule on suchland. Ancient Chinese held that the rule of senior officials was over theirenfeoffed land, and that of dukes and princes was over feudal states. The ruleof the Son of Heaven was over all the land. Literally, tianxia (天下) means “all under heaven.” It actually refers to allthe territory embracing the enfeoffed land and feudal states under the rule orin the name of the Son of Heaven, as well as all the subjects and the right torule. The term has later evolved to refer to the whole world.

例句 Example:

◎溥天之下,莫非王土;率土之滨,莫非王臣。(《诗经•小雅•北山》)

(普天之下,无一不是天子的土地;四海之内,无一不是天子的臣民。)

All land under heaven fallswithin the domain of the Son of Heaven; all those on this land are hissubjects. (The Book of Songs)


王道wángdào Kingly Way (Benevolent Governance)

儒家提倡的以仁义治理天下、以德服人的政治主张(与“霸道”相对)。上古贤明帝王多以仁德治国,至战国时代孟子将其提升为政治理念,提出国君应当以仁义治国,在处理国与国之间的关系时要以德服人,这样才能得到民众拥护,统一天下。它是中华民族崇尚“文明”、反对武力和暴政的具体体现。

Confucianism advocates thepolitical principle of governing the country through benevolence and winningpeople’s support through virtue as opposed to badao (霸道) – the despotic way. Enlightened kings and emperors ofancient times governed the country primarily through benevolence and virtue. Inthe Warring States Period, Mencius advocated this idea as a political concept:Only by governing the state with benevolence and righteousness, and by handlingstate-to-state relations on the basis of virtue, can a ruler win popularsupport and subsequently unify the country. The kingly way or benevolentgovernance epitomizes the Chinese people’s respect for “civilization” and their opposition to theuse of force and tyranny.

例句 Example:

◎无偏无党,王道荡荡。(《尚书•洪范》)

(公正而不偏向任何一方,圣王之道宽广无边。)

By upholding justice without anypartiality or bias, the kingly way is inclusive and boundless. (The Book ofHistory)


文明wénmíng Wenming (Civilization)

指社会文治教化彰明昌盛的状态。“文”指“人文”,指礼乐教化以及与此相关的有差等又有调和的社会秩序;“明”即光明、昌明、通达之义。中华民族崇文而不尚武,自古便将文治教化的彰明昌盛作为自己的最高理想和追求,并以此作为评判异国他域政治是否清明的最重要标准。

This term refers to a thriving,prosperous, and perceptibly refined society in which people behave in acultured fashion. Wen (文) refers to the arts and humanities, including social norms, musiceducation, moral cultivation, and a social order that is hierarchical yetharmonious. Ming (明) means bright, prosperous, andhighly civilized. The Chinese nation has always preferred wen to wu (武 force). This is the loftiest ideal pursued by the Chinese nationsince ancient times. It was also the criterion by which to judge whether thegovernance of a nation was well conducted.

例句 Example:

◎文明之世,销锋铸镝。(焦赣《易林•节之颐》)

(文明时代,销毁兵器,停止战争。)

In a civilized society weaponsare destroyed and war ceases. (Jiao Gong: Annotations on The Book of Changes)


文气wénqì Wenqi

作品中所表现出的作者的精神气质与个性特点。是作家的内在精神气质与作品外在的行文气势相融合的产物。“气”原指构成天地万物始初的基本元素,用在文论中,既指作家的精神气质,也指这种精神气质在作品中的具体表现。人禀天地之气而形成不同的个性气质,表现在文学创作中,便形成不同的文气,呈现出独特风格特点及气势强弱、节奏顿挫等。

Wenqi is the personality an author demonstrates inhis works, and is a fusion of his innate temperament and the vitality seen inhis works. Originally, qi (气) referred to the basic element in the initialbirth and formation of all things, as well as heaven and earth. In literarycriticism, it refers to an author’s distinctiveindividuality and its manifestation in his writings. Humans are believed todevelop different characters and traits endowed by the qi of heaven and earth.Reflected in literary creation, such different characters and traits naturallyfind expression in distinctive styles and varying degrees of vigor as well asrhythm and cadence.

例句 Examples:

◎文以气为主,气之清浊有体,不可力强而致。(曹丕《典论•论文》)

(文章由作家的“气”为主导,气有清气、浊气两种形态[决定人的气质优劣与材质高下],不是强行可以获得的。)

Literary writing is governed byqi. Either clear or murky, qi determines the temperament of a writer, refinedor vulgar, and his talent, high or low. Qi cannot be acquired. (Cao Pi: OnLiterary Classics)

◎气盛则言之短长与声之高下者皆宜。(韩愈《答李翊书》)

(作者的内心气势很强,那么句子长短搭配和音调的抑扬顿挫自然都会恰当。)

If a writer has a strong innerflow of qi, the length of his sentences will be well-balanced, and his choiceof tone and cadence will just be right. (Han Yu: A Letter of Response to Li Yi)


无为wúwéi Non-action

“为”的一种状态。道家以“有为”与“无为”相对。所谓“有为”,一般是指统治者把自己的意志强加给他人或世界,不尊重或不顺应万物的本性。“无为”的意义与之相反,包含三个要点:其一,权力通过自我节制的方式遏制自己的干涉欲望;其二,顺应万物或百姓的本性;其三,发挥万物或者百姓的自主性。“无为”并不是不作为,而是更智慧的作为方式,通过无为来达到无不为的结果。

Wuwei (non-action) refers to astate of action. Daoism contrasts “action” to “non-action.” “Action” generally means that the rulers impose their will on others or theworld without showing any respect for or following the intrinsic nature ofthings. “Non-action” is theopposite of “action,” and hasthree main points: 1) through self-control containing the desire to interfere;2) following the nature of all things and the people; and 3) bringing into playthe initiative of all things and people. “Non-action” does not mean not doing anything, but is a wiser way of doingthings. Non-action leads to the result of getting everything done.

例句 Examples:

◎圣人处无为之事,行不言之教。(《老子•二章》)

(圣人以无为的方式处理世事,以不言的方式教导百姓。)

Sages deal with things throughnon-action and teach ordinary people through non-speech. (Laozi)

◎道常无为而无不为。(《老子•三十七章》)

(道总是对万物不加干涉而成就万物。)

Dao always makes all thingspossible through non-interference with them. (Laozi)


五行wǔxíng Wuxing

“五行”有三种不同的含义:其一,指五种最基本的事物或构成万物的五种元素。《尚书•洪范》最早明确了“五行”的内容,即金、木、水、火、土。五种事物或元素有其各自的属性,彼此间存在相生相克的关系。其二, 五行进一步被抽象为理解万物和世界的基本框架,万物都可以纳入到五行的范畴之中,并因此被赋予不同的性质。其三,指五种道德行为。荀子曾指责子思、孟子“按往旧造说,谓之五行”,从郭店楚墓竹简及马王堆汉墓帛书相关文字内容来看,该“五行”指仁、义、礼、智、圣。

There are three meanings to theterm. 1) The five fundamental things or elements that make up all things. TheBook of History was the first to define the five elements: metal, wood, water,fire, and earth. Each of these has its own properties and they interact in agenerative or destructive relationship. 2) On a more abstract level, the termrefers to the basic framework to understand the world. All things can beincluded in the realm of wuxing (五行) and their properties are explainedor understood accordingly. 3) It refers to five kinds of moral behavior. Xunzionce criticized Zisi and Mencius for “creating wuxingon the basis of old theories.” Ancient bamboo slipsunearthed from a grave at Guodian dating back to the State of Chu as well asinscribed silk texts from the Mawangdui Tomb of the Western Han Dynasty, alldescribe this wuxing as benevolence, righteousness, li (礼), wisdom, and the wisdom and character of a sage.

例句 Example:

◎天有三辰,地有五行。(《左传•昭公三十二年》)

(天有日月星三辰,地有金木水火土五行。)

In heaven there are the sun,moon, and stars, while on earth there are the five elements: metal, wood, water, fire, and earth. (Zuo’s Commentaryon The Spring and Autumn Annals)


兴象xīngxiàng Xingxiang (Inspiring Imagery)

文学作品中能够生发深远意旨和审美情境的物象,是创作者主观情感与客观景象完美融合而产生的一种艺术境界。“兴”指作者偶然生发的创作冲动,“象”则是指作者在作品中所借助的外在的具体物象。“兴象”是唐代诗论家殷璠在《河岳英灵集序》中用来品评盛唐诗人作品的用语,后来演变成诗歌评论的“兴象观”,用以衡量作品境界的高下。

Inspiring imagery is an artisticachievement of profound literary significance and with great aesthetic taste,obtained through the perfect blending of an author’s feelingswith an objective situation or scenery. Xing (兴) is animpromptu inspiration of the author, and xiang (象) amaterial object he borrows from the external world in his writing. Tang-dynastypoetry critic Yin Fan first used the term “inspiringimagery" in his “Preface to A Collection of Poemsby Distinguished Poets” in commenting on the works ofpoets in the golden period of the Tang Dynasty. It later became a standard forassessing the merit of a poetic work.

例句 Examples:

◎既多兴象,复备风骨。(殷璠《河岳英灵集序》)

(诗人的作品既有许多兴象,又具备了风骨之美。)

These poets’ works featureboth inspiring imagery, as well as fenggu (class and integrity). (Yin Fan:Preface to A Collection of Poems by Distinguished Poets)

◎作诗大要不过二端:体格声调、兴象风神而已。(胡应麟《诗薮》)

(作诗大体上有两个方面:体制与声律,兴象与气韵。)

Poetry has two basic aspects:one includes form, rhythm, and rhyme; the other includes imagery and charm. (HuYinglin: An In-Depth Exploration of Poetry)


玄览xuánlǎn Xuanlan ( Peaceful Contemplation)

原指在深远虚净的心境下览知万物,是老子提出的认识“道”的一种方法。老子认为,只有摒弃一切杂念与成见,保持内心明澈如镜,才能静观万物,从而认识“道”,体会其精要。后世文艺评论家因为“玄览”所主张的心境与文艺创作及鉴赏所要求的审美心境相契合,遂用为文艺思想的重要术语,以说明文艺创作与鉴赏时应具有的超越一切欲望与功利的特殊心境。

This term was first used byLaozi as a way to understand Dao. He believed that one can not understand Daoby calmly observing everything unless one abandons all distracting thoughts andbiases, and keeps one’s mind as clear as a mirror. Later literary critics believed thatthe state of mind as required for xuanlan has similarities with the state ofmind required for literary writing and appreciation, thus they made it animportant term to mean one’s state of mind must transcend all desires andpersonal gains in literary writing and appreciation.

例句 Examples:

◎涤除玄览,能无疵乎?(《老子•十章》)

(涤除一切杂念,在深远虚静的心境下观照一切,就没有瑕疵了吗?)

Is it for sure that there willbe no flaws when one cleanses away all distracting thoughts and watches theworld with a clear, peaceful mind? (Laozi)

◎伫中区以玄览,颐情志于典坟。(陆机《文赋》)

(久立于天地间以深远虚静的心境观照一切,在典籍的阅读中颐养性情、培养志向。)

Standing between heaven andearth and watching the world with a clear, peaceful mind, the writer enrichesand improves himself through reading great works of the past. (Lu Ji: The Artof Writing)


雅俗yǎsú Highbrow and Lowbrow

指文艺作品品味的雅正与通俗、高尚与低俗。是文艺批评中评论作品品味高下的一对范畴。“雅”指作品的品味高雅正统,符合主流的意识形态;“俗”多指流行于大众与民间的世俗审美标准。从文艺创作上说,高雅文艺优美精良,但人工雕琢的痕迹较重;而通俗文艺源自民间,自然清新,质朴粗放。唐以后,不少文人从通俗文艺中汲取养分,通俗文艺逐渐增多,丰富了社会文艺生活,推动了文艺形态的丰富和发展。

Highbrow and lowbrow, adichotomy in literary criticism, refer to two kinds of literary and artisticworks, namely, the refined versus the popular, and the lofty versus the vulgar.Highbrow describes works that elegantand reflect what conforms with mainstream ideology, whereas lowbrow-art formstend to meet popular aesthetic standard. From the perspective of art creation,highbrow art may be exquisite, but often appears affected, whereas lowbrow art,which has a folk origin, is natural, refreshing, unaffected, and unconstrained.From the Tang Dynasty onward, it became a trend for men of letters to borrowthe best from popular art, thus further spurring the growth of lowbrow art,enriching cultural life and leading to more diversified artistic expressions.

例句 Examples:

◎子曰:“恶紫之夺朱也,恶郑声之乱雅乐也,恶利口之覆邦家者。”(《论语•阳货》)

(孔子说:“我厌恶用紫色取代红色,厌恶用郑国的音乐扰乱雅正的音乐,憎恶伶牙俐齿而使国家倾覆的人。”)

Confucius said, “I detestreplacing red with purple and interfering refined classical music with themusic of the State of Zheng. I loathe those who overthrow the state with their glibtongues.” (The Analects)

◎是以绘事图色,文辞尽情,色糅而犬马殊形,情交而雅俗异势。(刘勰《文心雕龙•定势》)

 

养气yǎngqì Cultivating Qi

涵养道德精神、调养身心健康以达到良好的文艺创作心态,从而创作出优秀的文艺作品。这一术语具有多重蕴涵:其一,先秦孟子强调君子应善于培养道德精神的“浩然之气”。其二,东汉王充在《论衡》中有《养气篇》,专门从养生角度提倡“养气”。其三,南朝刘勰《文心雕龙?养气》,汲取上述思想,主张在从事文艺创作的初始阶段,要保持良好的身体状态和从容自由的心态,不应过度消耗精神。后来“养气”成为文艺心理学的重要术语。
This term suggests cultivatingone’s moral spirit and improving one’s physicaland mental well-being to achieve the best state of mind during literarycreation in order to write excellent works. “Cultivatingqi (气)” has three implications:1) in the pre-Qin period Mencius emphasized that the virtuous and the capableshould foster a “righteous qi”conducive to moral cultivation; 2) A Comparative Study of Different Schools ofLearning by Wang Chong of the Eastern Han Dynasty has a chapter entitled “Treatise on Cultivating Qi,” whichemphasizes qi cultivation primarily in regards to maintaining good health; 3)Liu Xie of the Southern Dynasties, in The Literary Mind and the Carving ofDragons, drew upon the foregoing ideas and suggested maintaining good physicalcondition and a free, composed mental state in the initial phase of literarycreation, while opposing excessive mental exertion. “Cultivatingqi” subsequently became an important term in thelexicon of literary psychology.
例句 Examples:
◎我知言,我善养吾浩然之气。(《孟子.孙丑上》)
(我能够识别各种言论中的思想感情倾向,这是因为我懂得如何培养自己正大刚强的“气”。)
I am capable of differentiatingbetween the thoughts and sentiments people convey in their words because I knowhow to cultivate my qi, and keep it strong. (Mencius)
◎是以吐纳文艺,务在节宣,清和其心,调畅其气;烦而即舍,勿使壅滞。(刘勰《文心雕龙.养气》)
(因此从事写作必须学会节制和疏导,让内心纯净平和,将气调理顺畅,内心烦乱时就应停止,不要让思路滞涩。)
Hence, when engaging in writingone must learn how to constrain and regulate oneself, keep one’s mind pureand peaceful, and modulate one’s mental vitality andactivities. One should stop writing when upset so as not to disrupt one’s train of thinking. (Liu Xie: The Literary Mind and the Carving ofDragons)

意象yìxiàngYixiang (Imagery)

文学作品中表达作者主观情感和独特意境的典型物象。“意”指作者的思想情感;“象”是外在的具体物象,是寄寓了作者思想情感的艺术形象。在文学创作中,“意象”多指取自大自然中能够寄托情思的物象。“意象”强调文学作品的思想内容与形象之美的和谐生成,是一种成熟的文艺形态。
Imagery refers to a typicalimage in literary works, which embodies the author’s subjectivefeelings and unique artistic conceptions. Yi (意)literally means an author’s feelings and thoughts, andxiang (象) refers to the image of a material object inthe external world, an artistic image reflecting the author’s thoughts and feelings. In literary creation, imagery often refersto those images in nature with which an author’sfeelings and thoughts are associated. Emphasizing the harmonious relationshipbetween beauty in both form and content, it is a mature state of literarycreation.
例句 Examples:
◎窥意象而运斤。(刘勰《文心雕龙.神思》)
(探寻心中的意象而构思运笔。)
An author explores the imageryin his mind, conceives a work, and writes it down. (Liu Xie: The Literary Mindand the Carving of Dragons)
◎意象欲出,造化已奇。(司空图《二十四诗品.缜密》)
(诗歌的意象浑欲浮现,大自然是这般奇妙。)
What a wonderful state of natureit is when the imagery of a poem is about to emerge! (Sikong Tu: Twenty-FourStyles of Poetry)




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