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“中华思想文化术语传播工程”首批81条术语(第二波)

[日期:2015-01-14] 来源:教育部新闻办  作者:微言教育 [字体: ]

经典 | “镕裁”啥意思你造吗?81个词语带你了解中华思想文化(第二波)
2015-01-10 教育部新闻办  微言教育

教育部、国家语委近日发布“中华思想文化术语传播工程”首批术语。对“仁”、“义”、“道”等81条反映中华传统文化特征与思维方式的核心术语,中国官方正式对外发布了简明中文释义和英文翻译。今天,“微言教育”将这81条核心术语的内容全部展示给大家。下面这15个经典词语是第二波,我们一起继续学习吧。

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本末běnmò Ben–Mo(the Fundamental and the Incidental)

本义指草木的根和梢,引申而为中国哲学的重要概念。其含义可以概括为三个方面:其一,指具有不同价值和重要性的事物,根本的、主要的事物为“本”,非根本的、次要的事物为“末”;其二,世界的本体或本原为“本”,具体的事物或现象为“末”;其三,在道家的政治哲学中,无为之治下的自然状态为“本”,各种具体的道德、纲常为“末”。在“本末”对待的关系中,“本”具有根本性、主导性的作用和意义,“末”由“本”而生,依赖“本”而存在,但“本”的作用的发挥仍需以“末”为载体。二者既相互区别,又相互依赖。

The two characters literallymean the different parts of a plant, namely, its root and its foliage. Theextended meaning is an important concept in Chinese philosophical discourse.The term can be understood in three different ways. 1) ben (本) refers towhat is fundamental or essential, while mo (末) meanswhat is minor or incidental, two qualities that differ in value and importance.2) ben refers to the existence of the world in an ontological sense, while morepresents any specific thing or phenomenon. 3) in Daoist political philosophyben is a state in which rule is exercised by not disrupting the natural orderof the world, while mo refers to moral standards and fundamental principlesgoverning social behavior. In any ben-mo relationship, ben is most importantand plays a dominant role, while mo exists thanks to ben. On the other hand, itis through the vehicle of mo that ben exerts its influence. Thus the two,though different, are mutually dependent.

例句 Examples:

◎子夏之门人小子,当洒扫应对进退,则可矣,抑末也。本之则无,如之何?(《论语?子张》)

(子夏的学生,叫他们做打扫、接待、应对的工作,那是可以的,不过这只是末节罢了。而那些最根本性的学问却没有学习,这怎么行呢?)

Zixia’s students canclean, receive guests, and engage in social interaction, but these are trivialthings. They have not learned the fundamentals. How can this be sufficient?(The Analects)

◎崇本以举其末。(王弼《老子注》)

(崇尚自然无为之本以统括道德礼法之末。)

One should respect, notinterfere with, the natural order of the world, and apply this principle when establishing moral standards, socialnorms, and laws and regulations. (Wang Bi: Commentaries on Laozi)


般若bōrě Bore or Boruo / Wisdom

梵文praj?ā的音译(或译为“波若”)。意为“智慧”,指能洞见一切事物本性、认识万物真相的最高的智慧。佛教认为,“般若”是超越一切世俗认识的特殊智慧,是觉悟得道、修成佛或菩萨的所有修行方法的指南或根本。然而,这种智慧本身无形无相,不可言说,仅能依赖各种方便法门而有所领悟。

Bore or boruo is thetransliteration of the Sanskrit word praj?ā, meaning wisdom. It refers to the supreme wisdom with insight intothe nature and reality of all things. Buddhism believes that such wisdomsurpasses all secular understandings, and therefore is the guide for or essenceof the effort aimed at achieving enlightenment and attaining Buddhahood or bodhisattvahood.Bore has no form, no appearance, and cannot be expressed in words. It can onlybe achieved by undertaking a variety of accessible Buddhist practices.

例句 Example:

◎般若无所知,无所见。(僧肇《肇论》引《道行般若经》)

(般若这种智慧不是普通的知识,也超越一切具体的见闻。)

Bore is the wisdom that surpassesall common or ordinary knowledge and specific understandings. (Sengzhao:Treatises of Sengzhao)


大同dàtóng Universal Harmony

儒家理想中的天下一家、人人平等、友爱互助的太平盛世(与“小康”相对)。儒家认为它是人类社会发展的最高阶段,类似于西方的乌托邦。其主要特征是:权力和财富归社会公有;社会平等,安居乐业;人人能得到社会的关爱;货尽其用,人尽其力。清末民初,“大同”又被用来指称西方传来的社会主义、共产主义、世界主义等概念。

This term refers to the time ofpeace and prosperity envisioned by Confucian scholars when all the people underheaven are one family, equal, friendly, and helpful to each other (as opposedto xiaokang [小康] – minor or moderate prosperity). Confucianism takesuniversal harmony as the supreme stage of the development of the human society,somewhat similar to the idea of utopia in the West. Its main features are: Allpower and wealth belong to the whole of society; all people are equal and liveand work in peace and contentment; everyone is cared for by society; everythingis used to its fullest and everyone works to his maximum potential. In the lateQing Dynasty and the early Republic of China, the term referred to the conceptsof socialism, communism, or cosmopolitanism that had been introduced to Chinafrom the West.

例句 Example:

◎大道之行也,天下为公,选贤与能,讲信修睦。故人不独亲其亲,不独子其子,使老有所终,壮有所用,幼有所长,矜寡孤独废疾者,皆有所养……是谓大同。(《礼记?礼运》)

(大道实行的时代,天下为百姓所共有,品德高尚、才能突出的人被选拔出来管理社会,人与人之间讲究诚实与和睦。所以人们不仅仅爱自己的双亲,不仅仅抚养自己的子女,而是使老年人都能终其天年,壮年人都有用武之地,幼童都能得到抚育,无妻或丧妻的年老男子、无夫或丧夫的年老女子、丧父的儿童、无子女的老人以及残障者都能得到照顾和供养……这就叫做大同社会。)

When great Dao prevails, thewhole world is owned by all the people. Those who are virtuous and competentare selected as administrators. People treat each other with sincerity and livein harmony. People not only love their parents, bring up their children, butalso take care of the aged. The middle-aged are able to put their talents andabilities to best use, children are well nurtured, and old widows and widowers,unmarried old people, orphans, childless old people, and the disabled are allprovided for… This is universal harmony. (The Book of Rites)


法治fǎzhì Rule by Law

以法治国。是站在君主的角度,主张君主通过制定并严格执行法令、规章来治理民众和国家(与“人治”相对),是先秦时期法家的重要政治思想。法家的“法治”思想有赏罚分明的一面,也有过于严苛、刚硬的弊端。自汉朝以迄清朝,“法治”和“人治”,各王朝多兼而用之。近代以降,“法治”因西学东渐而被赋予新的含义。

Rule by law, as opposed to ruleby man, calls for ruling a state and its people by the ruler through enactingand strictly enforcing laws and regulations. It is an important politicalthought of the Legalist scholars in the pre-Qin period. Rule by law meted outwell-defined rewards and punishments, but tended to be excessively severe andrigid in enforcement. From the Han Dynasty all the way to the Qing Dynasty,rule by law and rule by man were exercised by various dynasties, mostly incombination. With the spread of Western thoughts to China in more recent times,rule by law acquired new meanings.

例句 Examples:

◎是故先王之治国也,不淫意于法之外,不为惠于法之内也。(《管子?明法》)

(所以先王治国,不在法度外恣意妄为,也不在法度内私行恩惠。)

When our forefathers ruled thestate, they did not act unscrupulously in disregard of law, nor did they bestowpersonal favors within the framework of law. (Guanzi)

◎故法治者,治之极轨也,而通五洲万国数千年间。其最初发明此法治主义,以成一家言者谁乎?则我国之管子也!(梁启超《管子评传》)

(所以法治就是治理国家的最高模式,它通行于五大洲万国的数千年历史之中。那么最初发明法治主义,成为一家之言的人是谁呢?是我国的管子啊!)

Therefore, rule by law is thesupreme way to rule a country. It has been exercised by numerous countries inthe world for several thousand years. Who conceived this idea and developed itinto a theory of governance? It was none other than our fellow countrymanGuanzi! (Liang Qichao: A Critical Biography of Guanzi)


封建fēngjiàn Feudal System

即封邦建国。古代帝王将爵位、土地和人口分封给亲戚或功臣,让他们在封地内建国。各封国的规模小于王室的直辖领地,军、政自成体系,封国之间相互制衡,拱卫王室。作为一种政治制度,封建制相传始于黄帝时期,至西周时期达于完备。秦至清,中央集权制或专制帝制居于主导地位,而封建制则成为一种辅助性制度。

Under this system, ancientmonarchs granted titles of nobility, land, and people to their relatives andofficials of merit, allowing them to establish dukedoms. Each territory wassmaller than that under the direct control of the monarch, and had its own militaryand administrative systems. All dukedoms checked each other while protectingthe monarch together. As a political scheme, the feudal system is believed tohave started in the era of the legendary Yellow Emperor, and became establishedin the Western Zhou Dynasty. In more than 2000 years from the Qin Dynasty tothe Qing Dynasty, centralized government or imperial autocracy was dominant,rendering the feudal system supplementary.

例句 Example:

◎彼封建者,更古圣王尧、舜、禹、汤、文、武而莫能去之。(柳宗元《封建论》)

(封建制经历了上古的圣贤之王尧、舜、禹、商汤、周文王、周武王也没有能废除它。)

Feudal system survived the erasof all ancient sages, namely Yao, Shun, Yu the Great, Tang of Shang, King Wenof Zhou, and King Wu of Zhou. (Liu Zongyuan: On Feudal System)


格调gédiào Form and Melody

指诗歌的体制声调,包括思想旨趣和声律形式两方面,涉及诗歌批评的品味与境界。“格”指诗歌的体制合乎规范;“调”指诗歌的声调韵律。唐宋时期的一些诗论家倡导格调,意在确立诗歌的雅正标准。明清以后的格调说,多强调作品应符合儒家正统思想,这影响了诗人的情感表达与艺术创作。“格调”后来也用到其他文艺领域。

The term refers to the form andmetrical patterns, as well as content, of poetry. It relates to artistic taste and appeal in poetry criticism. Ge (格) refers to the need to satisfyestablished metrical rules, while diao (调) refers tothe need to follow tone and rhyme schemes in poetry. Some poetry critics of theTang and Song dynasties stressed the importance of form and melody in order toestablish a set of elegant and authoritative standards for poetry. Theory onform and melody in the Ming and Qing dynasties often emphasized the importancefor poets to abide by Confucian orthodoxy, thus constraining their expressionof feelings and artistic creations. The term was later also used in discussionsof other forms of art.

例句 Examples:

◎高古者格,宛亮者调。(李梦阳《驳何氏论文书》)

(高雅古朴就是“格”,婉曲清亮就是“调”。)

To be elegant and unaffected isto satisfy the requirements of form; to be tuneful and resonant is to followthe rules of melody. (Li Mengyang: Arguments Against He Jingming’s Views)

◎白石词以清虚为体,而时有阴冷处,格调最高。(陈廷焯《白雨斋词话》卷二)

(姜夔的词以清新虚空为主要特色,虽然有凄清冷寂的地方,但格调最高。)

Jiang Kui’s poems arecharacterized by ethereal purity. Though tinged with loneliness and sadness attimes, they are of high standard and taste. (Chen Tingzhuo: Remarks on Lyricsfrom White Rain Studio)


华夏huáxià Huaxia

古代居住于中原地区的汉民族先民的自称。最早称“华”“诸华”或“夏”“诸夏”。“华夏”实际表达的是以汉民族为主体的中原先民对其共同的生活、语言、文化特征的一种认同和传承。秦建立以华夏为主体的统一的多民族国家以后,华夏才成为比较稳定的族群。自汉代以后,华夏又有了“汉”这一名称与之并用。后来华夏进一步引申为指中国或汉族。

The forefathers of the Hanpeople living in the Central Plains referred to themselves by this term.Earlier on they called themselves Hua (华), Zhuhua (诸华),Xia (夏) or Zhuxia (诸夏). Theterm Huaxia (华夏) embodies the common identity of theway of life, language, and culture of the people living in the Central Plains,mainly the Han people, and the inheritance of such identity. The Huaxia peopleevolved into a fairly stable ethnic group in the Qin Dynasty, which establisheda unified country of many ethnic groups with Huaxia being the principal group.In the Han Dynasty, the term Han became an alternative name of Huaxia. Later,the term Huaxia was extended to refer to China or the Han people.

例句 Example:

◎夏,大也。中国有礼义之大,故称夏;有服章之美,谓之华。华夏一也。(《左传?定公十年》孔颖达正义)

(夏的含义是“大”。华夏族的礼仪宏富伟大,所以称为“夏”;华夏族的衣服华美出众,所以称为“华”。“华”与“夏”是同一个意思。)

The Chinese character夏 (xia) meansbig and great. Since the ancient Huaxia people practiced grand and elaboraterituals, they called themselves Xia (great). Their dresses were resplendent, sothey were referred to as Hua (splendid). Therefore, both Hua and Xia refer tothe Han people. (Kong Yingda: Correct Meaning of Zuo’sCommentary on The Spring and Autumn Annals)


教化jiàohuà Shaping the Mind ThroughEducation

指教育和感化。是中国古代重要的政治理念和治国方法。当政者一般通过行政命令、道德教育、环境影响、通俗读物传播、科举考试等诸种有形和无形的手段的综合运用,将主流价值观潜移默化地向民众普及,使之深入民众的日常活动之中,从而实现政治与风俗的合二为一。

Shaping the mind througheducation was a key concept of the political philosophy and an essential way ofgovernance in ancient China. Rulers usually used a combination of means, bothvisible and invisible, to subtly spread their values among people so that thesevalues would be observed in people’s daily life, leading to integrationof governance and social mores. These means include issuing administrativedecrees, conducting moral education, creating a favorable environment,disseminating popular literature that promoted ethical values, and selectingofficials through imperial examinations.

例句 Example:

◎故礼之教化也微,其止邪也于未形。(《礼记?经解》)

(所以礼对民众的教育和感化作用是隐微的,它能够将不好的东西消弭于未成形之时。)

Educating and influencing thepeople through li (礼) has the invisible impact of getting rid of immoral thoughts in thebud. (The Book of Rites)


九州jiǔzhōu Nine Zhou (Regions)

中国的别称。《尚书?禹贡》中将中国划分为九州,分别是冀州、兖州、青州、徐州、扬州、荆州、豫州、梁州、雍州。同时代或稍后的典籍《周礼》《尔雅》《吕氏春秋》等有关“九州”的说法大同小异。“九州”作为行政区划在历史上并未真正实行过,但它反映了春秋末期以来中华先民栖息生活的大致上的地理范围。

This term is an alternativedesignation for China. According to The Book of History, the country consistedof nine zhou (州), namely Jizhou, Yanzhou, Qingzhou, Xuzhou, Yangzhou, Jingzhou,Yuzhou, Liangzhou, and Yongzhou. There are similar references to the nine zhouin classic works of the same or later period, such as The Rituals of Zhou, ErYa, and Master Lü’s Spring and Autumn Annals. The ninezhou were never adopted as actual administrative divisions of the country, butthey did show the general geographical area inhabited by the Chinese peoplesince the late Spring and Autumn Period.

例句 Examples:

◎九州生气恃风雷,万马齐喑究可哀。我劝天公重抖擞,不拘一格降人才。(龚自珍《己亥杂诗》)

(九州生机勃勃靠的是风雷激荡,万马齐喑的局面实在令人悲哀。我奉劝上苍定要重振精神,打破一切清规戒律降生更多人才。)

The vitality of China depends onwind and thunder, unfortunately not a single horse’s neighing isheard. I urge the Lord of Heaven to once again lift his spirits and, breakingall bonds and fetters, send talent of all kinds to the human world. (GongZizhen: Miscellaneous Poems Written in the Year of 1839)

◎吾恐中国之祸,不在四海之外,而在九州之内矣。(张之洞《劝学篇?序》)

(我恐怕中国的祸患,不在中国之外,而在中国之内。)

As I see it, the cause of China’s disasterslies not overseas but within the country. (Zhang Zhidong: Preface toEncouragement to Learning)


良史liángshǐ Good Historian/Good History

好的史家或史书,即能根据史实,客观记载书写,无所隐讳,信而有征。无论是史家,还是史书,判断其好坏的标准都在于记载历史是否客观真实。这是科学史学的首要条件。

This refers to historians orhistory books that record historical facts in an objective and truthful waybased on evidences without covering up anything. Objectivity is the ultimatecriterion for judging historians or history books in historiography.

例句 Examples:

◎然自刘向、扬雄博极群书,皆称迁有良史之材……其文直,其事核,不虚美,不隐恶。(《汉书?司马迁传赞》)

(可是自从刘向、扬雄博览群书之后,都称赞司马迁具备优秀史家的资质……他行文正直合理,叙事翔实正确,不虚假赞美,不掩盖恶行。)

However, after reading a hugenumber of books, Liu Xiang and Yang Xiong came to view Sima Qian as a greathistorian... His accounts are straightforward and reasonable, accurate andsubstantive, and free from false praise; they do not cover up evil deeds. (TheHan History)

◎凡善恶必书,谓之良史。(苏鹗《苏氏演义》卷上)

(无论善恶,都照直记录书写,这就叫好史书。)

A good history is one which recordsboth good and evil that have happened. (Su E: Textual Studies by Su E)


良知liángzhī Liangzhi (Conscience)

人天生所具有的道德本性与道德上的认识和实践能力。“良知”一词最初由孟子提出,认为人不加思虑便能知道的便是“良知”。“良知”的具体内容包括亲爱其父母、尊敬其兄长。而亲爱父母是仁,尊敬兄长是义。“良知”说是孟子性善论的重要内容。明代的王守仁提出“致良知”,进一步发展了孟子的“良知”说。他认为,“良知”就是天理,一切事物及其规律都包含在“良知”之中。将“良知”扩充到底,即能达到对一切道德真理的认识和实践。

Humans are born with innateconscience and the ability to know and act upon it. The term liangzhi (良知) was firstused by Mencius, who believed that what man knew by instinct was liangzhi(knowledge of goodness). The term includes ren (仁),i.e. love for one’s parents and yi (义), i.e. respect for one’s elder brothers.The concept is an important component of Mencius’belief in the innate goodness of human nature. The Ming-dynasty philosopherWang Shouren raised the idea of “attaining liangzhi.” He extended the Mencius’ liangzhi to meanthe principles of heaven, maintaining that all things under heaven and theirlaws were covered by liangzhi. With liangzhi being extended to its fullest(through self-cultivation and moral practice), it is possible to know and putin practice all moral truths.

例句 Examples:

◎所不虑而知者,良知也。(《孟子?尽心上》)

(人所不加思虑便能知晓的,就是良知。)

What is known without thinkingis the innate knowledge of goodness. (Mencius)

◎天理即是良知。(《传习录》卷下)

(天理就是良知。)

Principles of heaven andconscience are the same in essence. (Records of Great Learning)


情景qíngjǐng Sentiment and Scenery

指文学作品中摹写景物与抒发情感的相互依存和有机融合。“情”指作者内心的情感,“景”为外界景物。情景理论强调二者的交融,情无景不立,景无情不美。是宋代以后出现的文学术语,相对于早期的情物观念,情景理论更加重视景物摹写与情感抒发、创作与鉴赏过程的互相依赖与融为一体。

This term refers to the mutualdependence and integration of an author’s description of scenery and objects,and his expression of feelings in his literary creation. Qing (情) is an author’s inner feelings, and jing (景) refers to external scenery or an object. The theory of sentimentand scenery stresses integration of the two, maintaining that sentiment canhardly be aroused without scenery and that scenery or an object cannot beappreciated without sentiment. This term appeared in the Song Dynasty. Comparedwith earlier notions about sentiment and scenery, this one is more emphaticabout fusing the depiction of scenery with the expression of feelings, and theprocess of creation with that of appreciation.

例句 Examples:

◎景无情不发,情无景不生。(范晞文《对床夜语》卷二)

(景物若没有情感的注入就不会出现在诗歌中,情感若没有景物的衬托就无从生发。)

Scenery has no place in poetryunless there are feelings for it; feelings cannot be stirred without theinspiration of scenery. (Fan Xiwen: Midnight Dialogues Across Two Beds)

◎情景名为二,而实不可离。神于诗者,妙合无垠。巧者则有情中景、景中情。(王夫之《姜斋诗话》卷下)

(情与景虽然名称上为二,但实际上不可分离。善于作诗的人,二者融合巧妙,看不出界限。构思精巧的则会有情中景、景中情。)

Sentiment and scenery seem to betwo distinct things, but in fact they cannot be separated. A good poet knowshow to integrate them seamlessly. An ingenious combination of sentiment andscenery means scenery embedded in sentiment and vice versa. (Wang Fuzhi:Desultory Remarks on Poetry from Ginger Studio)


人治rénzhì Rule by Man

通过规范人伦关系、道德观念和其他价值系统来治理国家和民众(与“法治”相对),是中国古代儒家政治哲学中最重要的治国理念。这种理念强调人在政治中的根本地位和作用,希望君主具备圣贤的人格,选择有道德和有才干的人治理国家,教育和感化臣民。在中国历史上,这种治国理念通常伴随着一个理想的期待,即实现君、臣、民三者之间的和谐相处,也就是“仁政”。

Rule by man, as opposed to ruleby law, is the most important ruling concept in the Confucian politicalphilosophy in ancient China. It calls for ruling a state and its people throughorderly human relations, moral standards, and other value systems. Rule by manemphasizes the fundamental role and importance of people in conductingpolitical affairs. It emphasizes that a ruler should have a lofty and noblecharacter, select competent officials with integrity to run the state, andeducate and influence the general public. In Chinese history, this concept ofgovernance was designed to achieve a harmonious relationship between thesovereign, his officials, and his subjects, which meant “benevolentgovernance.”

例句 Example:

◎人治所以正人。(《礼记?大传》郑玄注)

(人治就是用来规范人伦关系的。)

Rule by man aims to regulatehuman relations. (Zheng Xuan: Annotations on The Book of Rites)

日新rìxīn Constant Renewal

​天天更新。努力使自身不断更新,使民众、社会、国家不断更新,持续进步、完善,始终呈现新的气象。它是贯穿在“修齐治平”各层面的一种自强不息、不断革新进取的精神。​
This term refers to an ongoingprocess of self-renewal, which also brings new life to the people, society, andthe nation. This process features continuous progress and improvement. Itrepresents a tenacious and innovative spirit that permeates all levels of “self-cultivation,family regulation, state governance, bringing peace to all under heaven.”​
例句 Example:​
◎汤之盘铭曰:“苟日新,日日新,又日新。”《康诰》曰:“作新民。”《诗》曰:“周虽旧邦,其命维新。”是故君子无所不用其极。(《礼记•大学》)​
(商朝的开国君主汤的浴盆上加铸的铭文说:“如果能够一天更新自己,就应保持天天更新,更新了还要再更新。”《尚书•康诰》上说:“激励民众弃旧图新,去恶向善。”《诗经》上说:“周虽然是古老的国家,却禀受了新的天命。”所以君子无时无处不尽心尽力革新自己。)​
“If we can improve ourselves in oneday, we should do so every day, and keep building on improvement,” reads the inscription on the bathtub of Tang, founder of the ShangDynasty. “People should be encouraged to discard theold and embrace the new, give up evil ideas, and live up to high moralstandards,” says The Book of History. “Though it was an ancient state, Zhou saw its future lying incontinuously renewing itself,” comments The Book ofSongs. Therefore, junzi (men of virtue) should strive to excel themselves inall aspects and at all times. (The Book of Rites)​

镕裁róngcái Refining and Deleting

​对文学作品的基本内容与词句进行提炼与剪裁,使之达到更高的水准与境界。属于文学写作的基本范畴。最早由《文心雕龙》提出。主要指作者在写作过程中,根据所要表达的内容以及文体特点,对于创作构思中的众多素材加以提炼,同时对文辞去粗存精、删繁就简,以求得最佳表现效果。这一术语既强调文学写作的精益求精,同时也彰显了文学创作是内容与形式不断完善的过程。明清时期戏剧创作理论也颇受其影响。​
This term refers to improving aliterary work by refining its basic content and making the presentationconcise. Refining and deleting is a basic process in literary writing. The termwas first mentioned in The Literary Mind and the Carving of Dragons. It means thatin producing a literary work, the author should select the right elements fromall the material he has, delete unnecessary parts and keep the essence, andwrite in a concise way to best present what he has in mind and to best suit thestyles of writing. It shows that literary creation is a process of constantlystriving for perfection in terms of both content and form. This idea had agreat impact on the theory of theatrical writing in the Ming and Qingdynasties.​
例句 Example:​
◎规范本体谓之镕,剪截浮词谓之裁。裁则芜秽不生,镕则纲领昭畅。(刘勰《文心雕龙•镕裁》)​
(“镕”是规范文章的基本内容和结构,“裁”是删去多余的词句。经过剪裁,文章就没有多余杂乱的词句;经过提炼,文章就会纲目清楚、层次分明。)​
Refining means to shape thebasic content and structure of a literary work, while deleting means to cut offredundant words or sentences. Once done, the essay will be well structured,with a clear-cut theme. (Liu Xie: The Literary Mind and the Carving of Dragons)




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