阅读文章

“中华思想文化术语传播工程”首批81条术语(第五波)

[日期:2015-01-15] 来源:教育部新闻办  作者:微言教育 [字体: ]

经典 | “人文化成”啥意思你造吗?81个词语带你了解中华思想文化(第五波)

教育部、国家语委近日发布“中华思想文化术语传播工程”首批术语。对“仁”、“义”、“道”等81条反映中华传统文化特征与思维方式的核心术语,中国官方正式对外发布了简明中文释义和英文翻译。今天,“微言教育”将这81条核心术语的内容全部展示给大家。下面这10个经典词语是第五波,一起学习吧。

汪涵的母校--湘潭市工贸中专学校欢迎你

汪涵的母校--湘潭市工贸中专

湖南省首批国家级示范学校
湘潭市首所国家级示范学校
湘潭市教育局公办中职学校

湘潭工贸中专学校2016招生简章
扫一扫工贸招生二维码可加微信咨询

联系人:赵红斌老师
报名热线:13467920032

发愤著书fāfèn-zhùshū Indignation Spurs One to WriteGreat Works.

因在现实生活中遭遇不平而下决心写出传世著作。源出《史记?太史公自序》。西汉司马迁在遭受宫刑后,强烈的愤懑情绪成为他创作《史记》的驱动力。他借《史记》表达自己的思想、感情、志向,最终使著作流传于世。“发愤著书”后多用来解释优秀的文艺作品的创作动机和原因。这一术语揭示了优秀的文学作品的产生往往与作者个人的不幸遭遇有直接关联。后世在此基础上又衍生出“不平则鸣”“诗穷而后工”等观点。

This term means sufferinginjustice in life can spur one to create great works. It originated from the “Preface by theGrand Historian to Records of the Historian.” AfterSima Qian, an official in the Western Han Dynasty, suffered the unjustpunishment of castration, his indignation spurred him to write the great work,Records of the Historian. In the book he gave expression to his thoughts,feelings, and aspirations, which made the book a classic for later generations.The expression “indignation spurs one to write greatworks” was used to explain one of the motivations andreasons for creating masterpieces. It points to the fact that injusticesuffered by an author often turns out to be the source of inspiration for himto write a literary masterpiece. It later led to similar terms like “Where there is injustice there will be an expression of indignation” and “Frustration inspires poets to writefine poems.”

例句 Examples:

◎惜诵以致愍兮,发愤以抒情。(屈原《九章?惜诵》)

(痛惜直言进谏却招致谗毁疏远,怀着一腔忧愤抒发衷情。)

I am saddened that my frankremonstration with the king has brought false accusations on me and left me inexile. In anguish and indignation, I am writing these poems to express mystrong feelings. (Qu Yuan: Collection of Nine Pieces)

◎《诗》三百篇,大抵圣贤发愤之所为作也。此人皆意有所郁结,不得通其道,故述往事、思来者。(司马迁《报任安书》)

(《诗经》三百篇,大都是圣贤抒发忧愤而创作出来的。这些人都是情意郁结,不能实现志向,所以记述往事,希望将来的人能够了解。)

Most of the 300 poems in TheBook of Songs were written by sages who were in anguish and indignation. Theywere depressed over what had prevented them from fulfilling their aspirations,so they composed poems about what had happened in the hope that futuregenerations would understand them. (Sima Qian: A Letter of Reply to Ren An)


怀远以德huái yuǎn yǐ dé Embrace Distant States by Meansof Virtue

指用恩惠、仁德去安抚、怀柔边远地区的部族、民众等。是历代华夏族政权用以处理与其他民族、未纳入直接统治范围的边远部族以及外国关系的一种政治理念,也是“以德服人”思想的重要方面。中国是一个多民族国家,以华夏族为主体的政权,自认为是大国并且文化发达,对于那些远离中华文化的边远部族、民众等,一般不采取武力征服,而是用比较温和、合于儒家“仁德”的手段,达到安抚并使之归顺的目的。

This expression refers topursuing conciliatory and benevolent policies and offering benefits to tribesand groups in remote areas. It was a political concept adopted by successivegovernments led mostly by the Han people in their relations with other ethnicgroups, tribes in remote areas not yet directly under their rule, and foreignstates. It also represented an important component of the theory of winningover others by virtue. China was, as it is today, a multi-ethnic country. TheHan-led government ruled over a large territory and believed that they had anadvanced culture. They usually took a conciliatory approach based on theConfucian concept of benevolence in dealing with the tribes and populations inremote regions, rather than conquering them by force, with the goal ofplacating them and winning their allegiance.

例句 Example:

◎管仲言于齐侯曰:臣闻之,招携以礼,怀远以德,德礼不易,无人不怀。(《左传?僖公七年》)

(管仲对齐侯道:臣听说,招抚尚未归顺的诸侯,用礼;安抚边远地区的国家,用德。不违背德和礼,没有人会不归附。)

Guan Zhong said to the Marquisof Qi, “I have heard it said: Win over the disaffected with respect andembrace distant states with virtue. With virtue and respect unchanging, thereis no one that will not be embraced.” (Zuo’s Commentary on The Spring and Autumn Annals)


利用厚生lìyòng-hòushēng Make Full Use of Resources toEnrich the People

 


充分发挥物力的效用,使民众生活富裕。古人认为,良好的政治在于“养民”,让民众生活富足。“利用”讲的是统治者应当节俭而不奢靡浪费,使物尽其用;“厚生”讲的是减轻徭役赋税,使民众生活安宁、富裕、幸福。它是中国近代民生主义、社会主义的思想渊源之一。

The ancient Chinese believedthat good governance allowed people to lead a life of plenty. The ruler shouldbe frugal, not extravagant or wasteful. He should make good use of the country’s materialresources, reduce the corvée and tax burdens on thepeople so that they could live peaceful, prosperous, and happy lives. Thisbelief was one of the sources of advocation for the people’s livelihood and socialist thinking in modern China.

例句 Example:

◎德惟善政,政在养民……正德、利用、厚生,惟和。(《尚书?大禹谟》)

(帝王的德行要体现为良好的施政,施政要以养育民众为目的……端正德行、物尽其用、使民众富裕,这三项工作要兼顾协调,配合得当。)

A ruler should manifest hisvirtue in good governance, and the goal of governance is to bring a good lifeto the people… The ruler should act in an upright and virtuous manner, and ensurethat the country’s resources are put to good use andthat the people live a prosperous life. These three goals complement oneanother. (The Book of History)


民惟邦本mín wéi bāng běn People Being the Foundation ofthe State

指民众是国家的根本或基础。只有百姓安居乐业、生活稳定,国家才能安定。最早见于伪《古文尚书》所载大禹的训示。这与战国时代孟子提出的“民为贵,社稷次之,君为轻”,荀子提出的“水能载舟,亦能覆舟”的思想一脉相承,并由此形成儒家所推崇的“民本”思想。

This term means that the peopleare the essence of the state or the foundation upon which it stands. Only whenpeople live and work in peace and contentment can the state be peaceful andstable. This saying, which first appeared in a pseudo-version of The ClassicalBook of History as an instruction by Yu the Great, can be traced to Mencius’ statement: “The essence of a state is the people, next come the god of land andthe god of grain (which stand for state power), and the last the ruler,” and Xunzi’s statement, “Just as water can float a boat, so can water overturn it.” This idea gave rise to the “people first” thought advocated by Confucianism.

例句 Example:

◎皇祖有训:民可近,不可下。民惟邦本,本固邦宁。(《尚书?五子之歌》)

(我们的祖先大禹曾经告诫说:民众只可以亲近,不能认为他们卑微。民众是国家的根本,根本稳固了国家才能安宁。)

Our ancestor Yu the Greatwarned: (a ruler) must maintain a close relationship with the people; he mustnot regard them as insignificant. They are the foundation of a state, and astate can enjoy peace only when its foundation is firm. (The Book of History)


人文化成rénwén-huàchéng Ren Wen Hua Cheng

根据社会文明的进展程度与实际状况,用合于“人文”的基本精神和原则教化民众,引导民心向善,最终实现有差等又有调和的社会秩序。“人文”指的是诗书、礼乐、法度等精神文明的创造;“化”是教化、教导(民众)并使之改变,“成”指社会文治昌明的实现。“人文化成”的核心在于强调文治,实际上是中华“文明”理想的又一表达形式。

The term is used to describeefforts to teach people essential ideals and principles of ren wen (人文) and guidethem to embrace goodness with the aim of building a harmonious –albeit hierarchical – social order, according to the level of development ofa civilization and the specifics of the society. Ren wen refers to poetry,books, social norms, music, law, and other non-material components ofcivilization. Hua (化) means to edify the populace; cheng (成)refers to the establishment or prosperity of rule by civil means (as opposed toforce). The concept emphasizes rule by civil means, and is another expressionof the Chinese concept of “civilization.”

例句 Example:

◎观乎天文,以察时变;观乎人文,以化成天下。(《周易?贲》)

(观察日月星辰的运行状态,可以知道四季的变换;考察诗书礼乐的发展状况,可以用来教化天下百姓,实现文治昌明。)

Observing the movements of thesun, moon, and stars helps us learn about the change of seasons; studying thedevelopment of poetry, books, social norms, and music enables us to edify thepopulace so that the rule by civil means can prosper. (The Book of Changes)


顺天应人shùntiān-yìngrén Follow the Mandate of Heaven andComply with the Wishes of the People

顺应上天的旨意和民众的意愿。“天”即“天命”,指上天旨意。古人认为,有德行的人秉承上天意志而确立政权,成为君主,故称为“天命”。“人”指人心、民意。它与西方“君权神授”思想相似,但它还强调人心、民意,体现了人本思想。在古代它常被用于称扬新朝代的建立和社会重大变革的实施,以表明其正当性、合法性。

The ancient Chinese believedthat virtuous men followed the will of heaven in establishing a politicalregime and becoming its sovereigns; hence their success came from the mandateof heaven. This thought is similar to the Western notion of the divine right ofkings; but it also emphasizes the wishes and will of the people, orpeople-centered thinking. In ancient China, this phrase was often used inpraise of the founding of a new dynasty, and the implementation of major socialreforms to justify its legitimacy.

例句 Example:

◎天地革而四时成。汤武革命,顺乎天而应乎人。(《周易?革》)

(天地有阴阳的变化而形成一年四季。商汤、周武王变革天命[推翻旧政权,建立新政权],是顺应了上天的旨意和人民的意愿。)

Changes of yin and yang inheaven and earth give rise to the four seasons. Following the mandate of heavenand complying with the wishes of the people, King Tang and King Wu overthrewold regimes and established the Shang and Zhou dynasties respectively. (TheBook of Changes)


为政以德wéi zhèng yǐ dé Governance Based on Virtue

以道德原则执掌国政,治理国家。孔子在西周统治者一向秉承的“明德慎罚”的基础上提出了为后世儒家所遵循的“德政”理念。“德政”与“威刑”相对。“为政以德”并非不要刑法,而是突出强调道德对政治的决定作用,将道德教化视为治国的根本原则与方法。

Governance of a state should beguided by virtue. Confucius expounded this philosophy –which his followers in later eras promoted – on the basis of theapproach advocated by the rulers in the Western Zhou Dynasty that prized highmoral values and the virtue of being cautious in meting out punishment.Governance based on virtue stands in contrast to rule by use of harshpunishment as a deterrent. It does not, however, exclude the use of punishment,but rather highlights the decisive role of virtue in governance, and regardsmoral edification both as the fundamental principle and the essential means forachieving good governance.

例句 Example:

◎为政以德,譬如北辰居其所,而众星共之。(《论语?为政》)

(以道德教化来治理政事,就像北极星位于天空一定的方位,而众星都环绕着它运行。)

Governance based on virtue islike the North Star taking its place in the sky, while all the other starsrevolve around it. (The Analects)


文以载道wén yǐ zài dào Literature Is the Vehicle ofIdeas.

儒家关于文学与道关系的论述。“文”指的是文学创作及作品;“道”指的是作品中的思想内容,但古代文学家与理学家将“道”主要理解为儒家所倡导的思想和道德。中唐时期古文运动的领袖韩愈等人提出“文以明道”的观点,认为文章主旨应合乎并发挥圣人的经典。宋代理学家周敦颐进一步发展为“文以载道”,提出文学像“车”,“道”即是车上运载的货物,文学不过是用以传播儒家之“道”的手段和工具。这一命题的价值在于强调文学的社会功用,强调文学作品应该言之有物、有正确的思想内容。但它轻视文学自身的审美特性,故后来受到重视文学自身价值的思想家与文学家的反对。

This term is a Confucianstatement about the relationship between literature and ideas. Wen (文) refers toliterary creations and works, while dao (道) refers tothe ideas conveyed by literary works. Writers and philosophers in ancient Chinaexplicated these ideas as Confucian thought and ethics. Han Yu (leader of themid-Tang-dynasty movement advocating the prose style of the Qin and Handynasties) and some others proposed that the purpose of writings should be inline with the classics of the ancient sages as well as promote them. ZhouDunyi, a neo-Confucian philosopher of the Song Dynasty, expounded the principleof literature serving as a vehicle of ideas. He concluded that literature waslike a vehicle while ideas were like goods loaded on it, and that literaturewas nothing but a means and a vehicle to convey Confucian ideas. This theorywas valuable because it stressed the social role of literature and emphasizedthat writers should know what they were writing about to ensure that theirworks conveyed correct ideas. However, it underestimated the aesthetic value ofliterature and later met opposition from thinkers and writers who emphasizedthe value of literature per se.

例句 Example:

◎文所以载道也。轮辕饰而人弗庸,徒饰也,况虚车乎?文辞,艺也;道德,实也。(周敦颐《通书?文辞》)

(文章是用来承载思想和道德的。车轮与车辕过度装饰而没人使用,白白装饰了,更何况那些派不上用场的车呢?文辞,只是一种技艺,而道德才是文章的实质。)

Writings are meant to conveyideas and ethics. When vehicles are not used, even if the wheels and shafts areexcessively decorated, it is simply a waste. Fine language is only a means forwriting, whereas ethics are the essence of writings. (Zhou Dunyi: The Gist ofConfucian Thought)


协和万邦xiéhé-wànbāng Coexistence of All in Harmony

指古代有贤德的君主通过实行仁政,将天下诸侯都聚集在自己周围,以实现不同民族的融合和文化上的涵化,形成和谐统一的部落联盟或多民族国家。这一思想是中国文化整体和谐观的重要表现,是中华民族文化精神的核心观念。

The term refers to the exerciseof benevolent government by virtuous and wise rulers in ancient China to winthe allegiance of all the vassals, so as to achieve an integration andacculturation of different ethnic groups and create a harmonious and unifiedalliance of tribes or a multi-ethnic state. Harmonious coexistence of all is akey feature of the concept of social harmony in Chinese culture and one of thecore values of the Chinese nation.

例句 Example:

◎克明俊德,以亲九族。九族既睦,平章百姓。百姓昭明,协和万邦,黎民于变时雍。(《尚书?尧典》)

([帝尧]能够明扬大德,使自己的氏族亲善。自己的氏族亲善以后,辨明部落百官族姓的等次。百官族姓的等次明晰之后,大大小小的诸侯国才能和谐共融,普通民众也才能变得和睦。)

(Emperor Yao) was able topromote moral values, so that amity prevailed in his clan. He then clarifiedthe hierarchical order of tribal officials. Only when this was done could allvassal states, big and small, prosper in harmony, and the people becomefriendly with each other. (The Book of History)


兴观群怨xīng guān qún yuàn Stimulation, Contemplation,Sociability, and Criticism

孔子所提出的《诗经》的四种主要功能,实际也是对文学基本功能与价值的高度概括。“兴”是指通过作品的欣赏引发联想,激发欣赏者对于社会人生的思考与志趣提升;“观”是通过作品认识自然与社会人生的各种状况,透视政治得失;“群”是围绕作品与别人展开讨论,交流思想感情;“怨”是表达对社会时政的不满,宣泄内心的情感。这四种功能有着内在的联系,涉及文学的审美功能、认识功能与教育功能。后世学者对此不断有新的阐发。

According to Confucius, The Bookof Songs served these four purposes, which summarize the basic functions andvalues of literature. “Stimulation” means that the appreciation ofliterary works arouses imagination, stimulates reflection on society and life,and inspires aspirations and interests. “Contemplation” means that reading leads to understanding nature, society, life,and politics. “Sociability”means that reading encourages discussion with others, and exchange of thoughtsand feelings. “Criticism” meanslearning how to critically express oneself about state affairs and voice innerfeelings. These four functions are closely associated and involve theaesthetic, cognitive, and educational functions of literature. Later scholarshave continued to make original contributions to the study of these themes.

例句 Examples:

◎《诗》可以兴,可以观,可以群,可以怨;迩之事父,远之事君;多识于鸟、兽、草、木之名。(《论语?阳货》)

(《诗经》可以感发志向,引发思考,认识世界,可以交流思想感情,表达不满情绪。在家可以用它来侍奉父母,出外可以用它来侍奉国君,还可以从中学到鸟兽草木等众多事物的知识。)

The Book of Songs stimulates themind, inspires contemplation, enables one to understand society, exchangefeelings and thoughts with others, and express resentment. The book guides oneon how to support and wait on one’s parents at home and how to serve one’s sovereign in public life. One can also learn about birds, beasts,and plants from the book. (The Analects)

◎于所兴而可观,其兴也深;于所观而可兴,其观也审;以其群者而怨,怨愈不忘;以其怨者而群,群乃益挚。(王夫之《姜斋诗话》卷上)

(经过作者感兴后的作品又具备认识价值,那么这种感兴一定深刻;经过认识又能够激发情感的,那么这种认识一定真实明察;因为聚在一起而产生某种怨恨,那么这种怨恨更加使人难忘;因为某种怨恨而聚成群体,这样的群体一定会更加紧密。)

If works created on the basis ofthe author’s understanding have the value of cognition, his understanding musthave been profound. If his feelings are based on recognition, his observationmust have been sharp. If certain resentment arises from discussions among agroup of people, it must be unforgettable. If a group of people have cometogether because they share certain resentment, they must be closely knit.(Wang Fuzhi: Desultory Remarks on Poetry from Ginger Studio)




阅读:
录入:湘里伢子

语网特别申明:各专栏专辑作者文责自负,对自己的作品享有完整版权,在语网的发布不影响其再版权,即作者还可另行投稿或出版。任何人均可在本站发布或转载文章,但这并不意味着本站赞同其观点或证实其内容的真实性,如涉及版权等问题,请作者来函联系。

评论 】 【 推荐 】 【 打印
上一篇:“中华思想文化术语传播工程”首批81条术语(第四波)

下一篇:“中华思想文化术语传播工程”首批81条术语(最后一波)
相关文章       翻译  术语  传统文化 
发表评论


点评:
 
字数(限500字,建议200字以内):
姓名:

  • 尊重网上道德,遵守中华人民共和国的有关法律法规
  • 承担一切因您的行为而导致的民事或刑事法律责任
  • 本站管理人员有权保留或删除其管辖留言中的任意内容
  • 本站有权在网站内转载或引用您的评论
  • 参与本评论即表明您已经阅读并接受上述条款
站内查询



 
推动中文  

分享到:

语言文字网YYWZW.COM是一个专门针对语言文字、中文信息处理等资源进行整合的网站,为最广泛的语言文字爱好者搭建一个交流平台。注册成为本站会员,就可以在语网推荐新闻、发表作品、转载文章,欢迎您的加盟。

栏目主持(按加入先后):

周胜鸿 彭泽润 戚桐欣 冯寿忠

沈克成 苏诚忠 王和   侯永正

宾德斋 潘德孚 陈明然 盛谏

毕可生 何南林 邱崇丙 马庆株

 
最新文章